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  • Author or Editor: Toshio Koike x
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Kun Yang
,
Toshio Koike
,
Ichirow Kaihotsu
, and
Jun Qin

Abstract

This study examines the capability of a new microwave land data assimilation system (LDAS) for estimating soil moisture in semiarid regions, where soil moisture is very heterogeneous. This system assimilates the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) 6.9- and 18.7-GHz brightness temperatures into a land surface model (LSM), with a radiative transfer model as an observation operator. To reduce errors caused by uncertainties of system parameters, the LDAS uses a dual-pass assimilation algorithm, with a calibration pass to estimate major model parameters from satellite data and an assimilation pass to estimate the near-surface soil moisture. Validation data of soil moisture were collected in a Mongolian semiarid region. Results show that (i) the LDAS-estimated soil moistures are comparable to areal averages of in situ measurements, though the measured soil moistures were highly variable from site to site; (ii) the LSM-simulated soil moistures show less biases when the LSM uses LDAS-calibrated parameter values instead of default parameter values, indicating that the satellite-based calibration does contribute to soil moisture estimations; and (iii) compared to the LSM, the LDAS produces more robust and reliable soil moisture when forcing data become worse. The lower sensitivity of the LDAS output to precipitation is particularly encouraging for applying this system to regions where precipitation data are prone to errors.

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Baisheng Ye
,
Daqing Yang
,
Yongjian Ding
,
Tianding Han
, and
Toshio Koike

Abstract

This paper presents the results of bias corrections of Chinese standard precipitation gauge (CSPG) measurements for wind-induced undercatch, a trace amount of precipitation, and wetting loss. Long-term daily data of precipitation, temperature, and wind speed during 1951–98 at 710 meteorological stations in China were used for this analysis. It is found that wind-induced gauge undercatch is the greatest error in most regions, and wetting loss and a trace amount of precipitation are important in the low-precipitation regions in northwest China. Monthly correction factors ratio of corrected amount to measured amount of precipitation differ by location and by type of precipitation. Considerable interannual variation of the corrections exists in China due to the fluctuations of wind speed and frequency of precipitation. More importantly, annual precipitation has been increased by 8 to 740 mm with an overall mean of 130 mm at the 710 stations over China because of the bias corrections for the study period. This corresponds to 6%–62% increases (overall mean of 19% at the 710 stations over China) in gauge-measured yearly total precipitation over China. This important finding clearly suggests that annual precipitation in China is much higher than previously reported. The results of this study will be useful to hydrological and climatic studies in China.

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Maheswor Shrestha
,
Lei Wang
,
Toshio Koike
,
Yongkang Xue
, and
Yukiko Hirabayashi

Abstract

In this study, a distributed biosphere hydrological model with three-layer energy-balance snow physics [an improved version of the Water and Energy Budget–based Distributed Hydrological Model (WEB-DHM-S)] is applied to the Dudhkoshi region of the eastern Nepal Himalayas to estimate the spatial distribution of snow cover. Simulations are performed at hourly time steps and 1-km spatial resolution for the 2002/03 snow season during the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) third Enhanced Observing Period (EOP-3). Point evaluations (snow depth and upward short- and longwave radiation) at Pyramid (a station of the CEOP Himalayan reference site) confirm the vertical-process representations of WEB-DHM-S in this region. The simulated spatial distribution of snow cover is evaluated with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8-day maximum snow-cover extent (MOD10A2), demonstrating the model’s capability to accurately capture the spatiotemporal variations in snow cover across the study area. The qualitative pixel-to-pixel comparisons for the snow-free and snow-covered grids reveal that the simulations agree well with the MODIS data to an accuracy of 90%. Simulated nighttime land surface temperatures (LST) are comparable to the MODIS LST (MOD11A2) with mean absolute error of 2.42°C and mean relative error of 0.77°C during the study period. The effects of uncertainty in air temperature lapse rate, initial snow depth, and snow albedo on the snow-cover area (SCA) and LST simulations are determined through sensitivity runs. In addition, it is found that ignoring the spatial variability of remotely sensed cloud coverage greatly increases bias in the LST and SCA simulations. To the authors’ knowledge, this work is the first to adopt a distributed hydrological model with a physically based multilayer snow module to estimate the spatial distribution of snow cover in the Himalayan region.

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Janet Hardy
,
Robert Davis
,
Yeohoon Koh
,
Don Cline
,
Kelly Elder
,
Richard Armstrong
,
Hans-Peter Marshall
,
Thomas Painter
,
Gilles Castres Saint-Martin
,
Roger DeRoo
,
Kamal Sarabandi
,
Tobias Graf
,
Toshio Koike
, and
Kyle McDonald

Abstract

The local scale observation site (LSOS) is the smallest study site (0.8 ha) of the 2002/03 Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) and is located within the Fraser mesocell study area. It was the most intensively measured site of the CLPX, and measurements here had the greatest temporal component of all CLPX sites. Measurements made at the LSOS were designed to produce a comprehensive assessment of the snow, soil, and vegetation characteristics viewed by the ground-based remote sensing instruments. The objective of the ground-based microwave remote sensing was to collect time series of active and passive microwave spectral signatures over snow, soil, and forest, which is coincident with the intensive physical characterization of these features. Ground-based remote sensing instruments included frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radars operating over multiple microwave bandwidths; the Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer (GBMR-7) operating at channels 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89 GHz; and in 2003, an L-, C-, X- and Ku-band scatterometer radar system. Snow and soil measurements included standard snow physical properties, snow wetness, snow depth transects, and soil moisture. The stem and canopy temperature and xylem sap flux of several trees were monitored continuously. Five micrometeorological towers monitored ambient conditions and provided forcing datasets for 1D snow and soil models. Arrays of pyranometers (0.3–3 μm) and a scanning thermal radiometer (8–12 μm) characterized the variability of radiative receipt in the forests. A field spectroradiometer measured the hyperspectral hemispherical-directional reflectance of the snow surface. These measurements, together with the ground-based remote sensing, provide the framework for evaluating and improving microwave radiative transfer models and coupling them to land surface models. The dataset is archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado.

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