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  • Author or Editor: Vanda Grubišić x
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Junhong Wang
Jianchun Bian
William O. Brown
Harold Cole
Vanda Grubišić
, and
Kate Young


The primary goal of this study is to explore the potential for estimating the vertical velocity (VV) of air from the surface to the stratosphere, using widely available radiosonde and dropsonde data. The rise and fall rates of radiosondes and dropsondes, respectively, are a combination of the VV of the atmosphere and still-air rise–fall rates. The still-air rise–fall rates are calculated using basic fluid dynamics and characteristics of radiosonde and dropsonde systems. This study validates the technique to derive the VV from radiosonde and dropsonde data and demonstrates its value. This technique can be easily implemented by other users for various scientific applications.

The technique has been applied to the Terrain-induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) dropsonde and radiosonde data. Comparisons among radiosonde, dropsonde, aircraft, and profiling radar vertical velocities show that the sonde-estimated VV is able to capture and describe events with strong vertical motions (larger than ∼1 m s−1) observed during T-REX. The VV below ∼5 km above ground, however, is overestimated by the radiosonde data. The analysis of derived VVs shows interesting features of gravity waves, rotors, and turbulence. Periodic variations of vertical velocity in the stratosphere, as indicated by the radiosonde data, correspond to the horizontal wavelength of gravity waves with an averaged horizontal wavelength of ∼15 km. Two-dimensional VV structure is described in detail by successive dropsonde deployment.

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