Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Vanda Grubišić x
  • Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-Rex) x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Ivana Stiperski
and
Vanda Grubišić
Full access
Vanda Grubišić
and
Ivana Stiperski

Abstract

Lee-wave resonance over double bell-shaped obstacles is investigated through a series of idealized high-resolution numerical simulations with the nonhydrostatic Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) model using a free-slip lower boundary condition. The profiles of wind speed and stability as well as terrain derive from observations of lee-wave events over the Sierra Nevada and Inyo Mountains from the recently completed Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX).

Numerical experiments show that double bell-shaped obstacles promote trapped lee waves that are in general shorter than those excited by an isolated ridge. While the permissible trapped lee-wave modes are determined by the upstream atmospheric structure, primarily vertical wind shear, the selected lee-wave wavelengths for two obstacles that are close or equal in height are dictated by the discrete terrain spectrum and correspond to higher harmonics of the primary orographic wavelength, which is equal to the ridge separation distance. The exception is the smallest ridge separation distance examined, one that corresponds to the Owens Valley width and is closest to the wavelength determined by the given upstream atmospheric structure, for which the primary lee-wave and orographic wavelengths were found to nearly coincide.

The influence two mountains exert on the overall lee-wave field is found to persist at very large ridge separation distances. For the nonlinear nonhydrostatic waves examined, the ridge separation distance is found to exert a much stronger control over the lee-wave wavelengths than the mountain half-width. Positive and negative interferences of lee waves, which can be detected through their imprint on wave drag and wave amplitudes, were found to produce appreciable differences in the flow structure mainly over the downstream peak, with negative interference characterized by a highly symmetric flow pattern leading to a low drag state.

Full access
Ivana Stiperski
and
Vanda Grubišić

Abstract

Trapped lee wave interference over double bell-shaped obstacles in the presence of surface friction is examined. Idealized high-resolution numerical experiments with the nonhydrostatic Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) are performed to examine the influence of a frictional boundary layer and nonlinearity on wave interference and the impact of interference on wave-induced boundary layer separation and the formation of rotors.

The appearance of constructive and destructive interference, controlled by the ratio of the ridge separation distance to the intrinsic horizontal wavelength of lee waves, is found to be predicted well by linear interference theory with orographic adjustment. The friction-induced shortening of intrinsic wavelength displays a strong indirect effect on wave interference. For twin peak orography, the interference-induced variation of wave amplitude is smaller than that predicted by linear theory. The interference is found to affect the formation and strength of rotors most significantly in the lee of the downstream peak; destructive interference suppresses the formation and strength of rotors there, whereas results for constructive interference closely parallel those for a single mountain. Over the valley, under both constructive and destructive interference, rotors are weaker compared to those in the lee of a single ridge while their strength saturates in the finite-amplitude flow regime.

Destructive interference is found to be more susceptible to nonlinear effects, with both the orographic adjustment and surface friction displaying a stronger effect on the flow in this state. “Complete” destructive interference, in which waves almost completely cancel out in the lee of the downstream ridge, develops for certain ridge separation distances but only for a downstream ridge smaller than the upstream one.

Full access
Vanda Grubišić
and
Brian J. Billings

Abstract

This note presents a satellite-based climatology of the Sierra Nevada mountain-wave events. The data presented were obtained by detailed visual inspection of visible satellite imagery to detect mountain lee-wave clouds based on their location, shape, and texture. Consequently, this climatology includes only mountain-wave events during which sufficient moisture was present in the incoming airstream and whose amplitude was large enough to lead to cloud formation atop mountain-wave crests. The climatology is based on data from two mountain-wave seasons in the 1999–2001 period. Mountain-wave events are classified in two types according to cloud type as lee-wave trains and single wave clouds. The frequency of occurrence of these two wave types is examined as a function of the month of occurrence (October–May) and region of formation (north, middle, south, or the entire Sierra Nevada range). Results indicate that the maximum number of mountain-wave events in the lee of the Sierra Nevada occurs in the month of April. For several months, including January and May, frequency of wave events displays substantial interannual variability. Overall, trapped lee waves appear to be more common, in particular in the lee of the northern sierra. A single wave cloud on the lee side of the mountain range was found to be a more common wave form in the southern Sierra Nevada. The average wavelength of the Sierra Nevada lee waves was found to lie between 10 and 15 km, with a minimum at 4 km and a maximum at 32 km.

Full access
Vanda Grubišić
and
Brian J. Billings

Abstract

A large-amplitude lee-wave rotor event observationally documented during Sierra Rotors Project Intensive Observing Period (IOP) 8 on 24–26 March 2004 in the lee of the southern Sierra Nevada is examined. Mountain waves and rotors occurred over Owens Valley in a pre-cold-frontal environment. In this study, the evolution and structure of the observed and numerically simulated mountain waves and rotors during the event on 25 March, in which the horizontal circulation associated with the rotor was observed as an opposing, easterly flow by the mesonetwork of surface stations in Owens Valley, are analyzed.

The high-resolution numerical simulations of this case, performed with the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) run with multiple nested-grid domains, the finest grid having 333-m horizontal spacing, reproduced many of the observed features of this event. These include small-amplitude waves above the Sierra ridge decoupled from thermally forced flow within the valley, and a large-amplitude mountain wave, turbulent rotor, and strong westerlies on the Sierra Nevada lee slopes during the period of the observed surface easterly flow. The sequence of the observed and simulated events shows a pronounced diurnal variation with the maximum wave and rotor activity occurring in the early evening hours during both days of IOP 8.

The lee-wave response, and thus indirectly the appearance of lee-wave rotor during the core IOP 8 period, is found to be strongly controlled by temporal changes in the upstream ambient wind and stability profiles. The downstream mountain range exerts strong control over the lee-wave horizontal wavelength during the strongest part of this event, thus exhibiting the control over the cross-valley position of the rotor and the degree of strong downslope wind penetration into the valley.

Full access
Stefano Serafin
,
Lukas Strauss
, and
Vanda Grubišić

Abstract

A 5-yr climatology of westerly wind events in Owens Valley, California, is derived from data measured by a mesoscale network of 16 automatic weather stations. Thermally driven up- and down-valley flows are found to account for a large part of the diurnal wind variability in this approximately north–south-oriented deep U-shaped valley. High–wind speed events at the western side of the valley deviate from this basic pattern by showing a higher percentage of westerly winds. In general, strong westerly winds in Owens Valley tend to be more persistent and to display higher sustained speeds than strong winds from other quadrants. The highest frequency of strong winds at the valley floor is found in the afternoon hours from April to September, pointing to thermal forcing as a plausible controlling mechanism. However, the most intense westerly wind events (westerly windstorms) can happen at any time of the day throughout the year. The temperature and humidity variations caused by westerly windstorms depend on the properties of the approaching air masses. In some cases, the windstorms lead to overall warming and drying of the valley atmosphere, similar to foehn or chinook intrusions. The key dynamical driver of westerly windstorms in Owens Valley is conjectured to be the downward penetration of momentum associated with mountain waves produced by the Sierra Nevada ridgeline to the west of the valley.

Full access
Lukas Strauss
,
Stefano Serafin
, and
Vanda Grubišić

Abstract

The conceptual model of an atmospheric rotor is reexamined in the context of a valley, using data from the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) conducted in 2006 in the southern Sierra Nevada and Owens Valley, California. All T-REX cases with strong mountain-wave activity have been investigated, and four of them (IOPs 1, 4, 6, and 13) are presented in detail. Their analysis reveals a rich variety of rotorlike turbulent flow structures that may form in the valley during periods of strong cross-mountain winds. Typical flow scenarios in the valley include elevated turbulence zones, downslope flow separation at a valley inversion, turbulent interaction of in-valley westerlies and along-valley flows, and highly transient mountain waves and rotors. The scenarios can be related to different stages of the passage of midlatitude frontal systems across the region. The observations from Owens Valley show that the elements of the classic rotor concept are modulated and, at times, almost completely offset by dynamically and thermally driven processes in the valley. Strong lee-side pressure perturbations induced by large-amplitude waves, commonly regarded as the prerequisite for flow separation, are found to be only one of the factors controlling rotor formation and severe turbulence generation in the valley. Buoyancy perturbations in the thermally layered valley atmosphere appear to play a role in many of the observed cases. Based on observational evidence from T-REX, extensions to the classic rotor concept, appropriate for a long deep valley, are proposed.

Full access
Yanping Li
,
Ronald B. Smith
, and
Vanda Grubišić

Abstract

Harmonic analysis has been applied to data from nearly 1000 Automatic Surface Observation System (ASOS) stations over the United States to extract diurnal pressure signals. The largest diurnal pressure amplitudes (∼200 Pa) and the earliest phases (∼0600 LST for surface pressure maximum) were found for stations located within deep mountain valleys in the western United States. The origin of these unique characteristics of valley pressure signals is examined with a detailed study of Owens Valley, California. Analysis of observational data from the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) project shows that the ratio of the valley surface pressure to temperature amplitude can be used to estimate the daily maximum mixed-layer depth H. On days with strong westerly winds above the valley, the mixed layer is found to be shallower than on quiescent days because of a flushing effect in the upper parts of the valley. Idealized two-dimensional Weather Research and Forecasting Model simulations were used to explain the pressure signal. In agreement with observations, the simulations show a 3-h difference between the occurrence of a surface pressure minimum (1800 LST) and a surface temperature maximum (1500 LST). The resolved energy budget analysis reveals that this time lag is caused by the persistence of subsidence warming in the upper part of the valley after the surface begins to cool. Sensitivity tests for different valley depths and seasons show that the relative height of the mixed-layer depth with respect to the valley depth, along with the valley width-to-depth ratio, determine whether the diurnal valley circulation is a “confined” system or an “open” system. The open system has a smaller pressure amplitude and an earlier pressure phase.

Full access
James D. Doyle
,
Qingfang Jiang
,
Ronald B. Smith
, and
Vanda Grubišić

Abstract

Measurements from the National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NSF/NCAR) Gulfstream V (G-V) obtained during the recent Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) indicate marked differences in the character of the wave response between repeated flight tracks across the Sierra Nevada, which were separated by a distance of approximately 50 km. Observations from several of the G-V research flights indicate that the vertical velocities in the primary wave exhibited variations up to a factor of 2 between the southern and northern portions of the racetrack flight segments in the lower stratosphere, with the largest amplitude waves most often occurring over the southern flight leg, which has a terrain maximum that is 800 m lower than the northern leg. Multiple racetracks at 11.7- and 13.1-km altitudes indicate that these differences were repeatable, which is suggestive that the deviations were likely due to vertically propagating mountain waves that varied systematically in amplitude rather than associated with transients. The cross-mountain horizontal velocity perturbations are also a maximum above the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada ridge.

Real data and idealized nonhydrostatic numerical model simulations are used to test the hypothesis that the observed variability in the wave amplitude and characteristics in the along-barrier direction is a consequence of blocking by the three-dimensional Sierra Nevada and the Coriolis effect. The numerical simulation results suggest that wave launching is sensitive to the overall three-dimensional characteristics of the Sierra Nevada barrier, which has an important impact on the wave amplitude and characteristics in the lower stratosphere. Real-time high-resolution Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) forecasts successfully capture the along-barrier variations in the wave amplitude (using vertical velocity as a proxy) as well as skillfully distinguishing between large- and small-amplitude stratospheric wave events during T-REX.

Full access
Qingfang Jiang
,
James D. Doyle
,
Vanda Grubišić
, and
Ronald B. Smith

Abstract

Characteristics of turbulence in the lower and middle troposphere over Owens Valley have been examined using aircraft in situ measurements obtained from the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment. The two events analyzed in this study are characterized by a deep turbulent layer from the valley floor up to the midtroposphere associated with the interaction between trapped waves and an elevated shear layer. Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability develops above the mountaintop level and often along the wave crests where the Richardson number is reduced. The turbulence induced by KH instability is characterized by a progressive downscale energy cascade, a well-defined inertial subrange up to 1 km, and large eddies with vertical to horizontal aspect ratios less than unity. The turbulence below the mountaintop level is largely shear induced, associated with wave steepening and breaking, and is more isotropic. Evaluation of structure functions indicates that while the turbulence energy cascade is predominately downscale, upscale energy transfer exists with horizontal scales from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers because of the transient energy dispersion of large eddies generated by KH instability and gravity wave steepening or breaking.

Full access