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  • Author or Editor: Verner E. Suomi x
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Verner E. Suomi and William C. Siien

Abstract

According to radiometersonde observations, the net vertical flux divergence of infrared radiation is positively correlated with the outward flux at the top of the atmosphere. Measurements of the latter quantity from the Explorer VII satellite are shown to he correlated with tropospheric temperature, such that warm air on the average is cooled less than cold air at the same latitude by infrared radiation. Calculations of the generation of eddy available potential energy by this process are presented and shown to be significant.

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Earl W. Barrett and Verner E. Suomi

Abstract

Following a brief review of the assumptions involved in the usual (Laplacian) expression for the speed of sound waves, an instrument, the sonic thermometer, is described which utilizes this relationship to measure the air temperature. The advantages of the sonic thermometer are then discussed, the main advantages being the absence of radiational errors and extremely low lag—a result of the fact that the measured variable, the speed of sound, is independent of the properties of the measuring elements.

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Sanjay Shridhar Limaye and Verner E. Suomi

Abstract

We present results on cloud motions on Venus obtained over a period of 3.5 days from Mariner 10 television images. The implied atmosphere flow is almost zonal everywhere on the visible disk, and is in the same retrograde sense as the solid planet. Objective analysis of motions suggests presence of jet cores (−130 m s−1) and organized atmospheric waves. The longitudinal mean meridional profile of the zonal component of motion of the ultraviolet features shows presence of a midlatitude jet stream (−110 m s−1). The mean zonal component is −97 m s−1 at the equator. The mean meridional motion at most latitudes is directed toward the pole in either hemisphere and is at least an order of magnitude smaller so that the flow is nearly zonal. A tentative conclusion from the limited coverage available from Mariner 10 is that at the level of ultraviolet features mean meridional circulation is the dominant mode of poleward angular momentum transfer as opposed to the eddy circulation.

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Thomas H. Vonder Haar and Verner E. Suomi

Abstract

This paper summarizes an extended time series of measurements of the earth's radiation budget from the first and second generation United States meteorological satellites. Values of planetary albedo, infrared radiant emittance, and the resulting net radiation budget are now available for 39 months during the period 1962–66. These measurements show a mean global albedo of 30%, and net radiation balance within measurement accuracy. The discussion treats global and zonally averaged values for the “mean annual” case, for “mean seasons,” and includes a comparison of measurements during the same seasons in different years. The role of these radiation budget measurements in the total global energy balance is noted.

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