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Tuukka Petäjä
,
Ewan J. O’Connor
,
Dmitri Moisseev
,
Victoria A. Sinclair
,
Antti J. Manninen
,
Riikka Väänänen
,
Annakaisa von Lerber
,
Joel A. Thornton
,
Keri Nicoll
,
Walt Petersen
,
V. Chandrasekar
,
James N. Smith
,
Paul M. Winkler
,
Olaf Krüger
,
Hannele Hakola
,
Hilkka Timonen
,
David Brus
,
Tuomas Laurila
,
Eija Asmi
,
Marja-Liisa Riekkola
,
Lucia Mona
,
Paola Massoli
,
Ronny Engelmann
,
Mika Komppula
,
Jian Wang
,
Chongai Kuang
,
Jaana Bäck
,
Annele Virtanen
,
Janne Levula
,
Michael Ritsche
, and
Nicki Hickmon

Abstract

During Biogenic Aerosols—Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC), the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program deployed the Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) to Hyytiälä, Finland, for an 8-month intensive measurement campaign from February to September 2014. The primary research goal is to understand the role of biogenic aerosols in cloud formation. Hyytiälä is host to the Station for Measuring Ecosystem–Atmosphere Relations II (SMEAR II), one of the world’s most comprehensive surface in situ observation sites in a boreal forest environment. The station has been measuring atmospheric aerosols, biogenic emissions, and an extensive suite of parameters relevant to atmosphere–biosphere interactions continuously since 1996. Combining vertical profiles from AMF2 with surface-based in situ SMEAR II observations allows the processes at the surface to be directly related to processes occurring throughout the entire tropospheric column. Together with the inclusion of extensive surface precipitation measurements and intensive observation periods involving aircraft flights and novel radiosonde launches, the complementary observations provide a unique opportunity for investigating aerosol–cloud interactions and cloud-to-precipitation processes in a boreal environment. The BAECC dataset provides opportunities for evaluating and improving models of aerosol sources and transport, cloud microphysical processes, and boundary layer structures. In addition, numerical models are being used to bridge the gap between surface-based and tropospheric observations.

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Federico Bianchi
,
Victoria A. Sinclair
,
Diego Aliaga
,
Qiaozhi Zha
,
Wiebke Scholz
,
Cheng Wu
,
Liine Heikkinen
,
Rob Modini
,
Eva Partoll
,
Fernando Velarde
,
Isabel Moreno
,
Yvette Gramlich
,
Wei Huang
,
Alkuin Maximilian Koenig
,
Markus Leiminger
,
Joonas Enroth
,
Otso Peräkylä
,
Angela Marinoni
,
Chen Xuemeng
,
Luis Blacutt
,
Ricardo Forno
,
Rene Gutierrez
,
Patrick Ginot
,
Gaëlle Uzu
,
Maria Cristina Facchini
,
Stefania Gilardoni
,
Martin Gysel-Beer
,
Runlong Cai
,
Tuukka Petäjä
,
Matteo Rinaldi
,
Harald Saathoff
,
Karine Sellegri
,
Douglas Worsnop
,
Paulo Artaxo
,
Armin Hansel
,
Markku Kulmala
,
Alfred Wiedensohler
,
Paolo Laj
,
Radovan Krejci
,
Samara Carbone
,
Marcos Andrade
, and
Claudia Mohr

Abstract

This paper presents an introduction to the Southern Hemisphere High Altitude Experiment on Particle Nucleation and Growth (SALTENA). This field campaign took place between December 2017 and June 2018 (wet to dry season) at Chacaltaya (CHC), a GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) station located at 5,240 m MSL in the Bolivian Andes. Concurrent measurements were conducted at two additional sites in El Alto (4,000 m MSL) and La Paz (3,600 m MSL). The overall goal of the campaign was to identify the sources, understand the formation mechanisms and transport, and characterize the properties of aerosol at these stations. State-of-the-art instruments were brought to the station complementing the ongoing permanent GAW measurements, to allow a comprehensive description of the chemical species of anthropogenic and biogenic origin impacting the station and contributing to new particle formation. In this overview we first provide an assessment of the complex meteorology, airmass origin, and boundary layer–free troposphere interactions during the campaign using a 6-month high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation coupled with Flexible Particle dispersion model (FLEXPART). We then show some of the research highlights from the campaign, including (i) chemical transformation processes of anthropogenic pollution while the air masses are transported to the CHC station from the metropolitan area of La Paz–El Alto, (ii) volcanic emissions as an important source of atmospheric sulfur compounds in the region, (iii) the characterization of the compounds involved in new particle formation, and (iv) the identification of long-range-transported compounds from the Pacific or the Amazon basin. We conclude the article with a presentation of future research foci. The SALTENA dataset highlights the importance of comprehensive observations in strategic high-altitude locations, especially the undersampled Southern Hemisphere.

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