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  • Author or Editor: Vincent Guidard x
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Stephen A. Cohn
,
Terry Hock
,
Philippe Cocquerez
,
Junhong Wang
,
Florence Rabier
,
David Parsons
,
Patrick Harr
,
Chun-Chieh Wu
,
Philippe Drobinski
,
Fatima Karbou
,
Stéphanie Vénel
,
André Vargas
,
Nadia Fourrié
,
Nathalie Saint-Ramond
,
Vincent Guidard
,
Alexis Doerenbecher
,
Huang-Hsiung Hsu
,
Po-Hsiung Lin
,
Ming-Dah Chou
,
Jean-Luc Redelsperger
,
Charlie Martin
,
Jack Fox
,
Nick Potts
,
Kathryn Young
, and
Hal Cole

Constellations of driftsonde systems— gondolas floating in the stratosphere and able to release dropsondes upon command— have so far been used in three major field experiments from 2006 through 2010. With them, high-quality, high-resolution, in situ atmospheric profiles were made over extended periods in regions that are otherwise very difficult to observe. The measurements have unique value for verifying and evaluating numerical weather prediction models and global data assimilation systems; they can be a valuable resource to validate data from remote sensing instruments, especially on satellites, but also airborne or ground-based remote sensors. These applications for models and remote sensors result in a powerful combination for improving data assimilation systems. Driftsondes also can support process studies in otherwise difficult locations—for example, to study factors that control the development or decay of a tropical disturbance, or to investigate the lower boundary layer over the interior Antarctic continent. The driftsonde system is now a mature and robust observing system that can be combined with flight-level data to conduct multidisciplinary research at heights well above that reached by current research aircraft. In this article we describe the development and capabilities of the driftsonde system, the exemplary science resulting from its use to date, and some future applications.

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Florence Rabier
,
Aurélie Bouchard
,
Eric Brun
,
Alexis Doerenbecher
,
Stéphanie Guedj
,
Vincent Guidard
,
Fatima Karbou
,
Vincent-Henri Peuch
,
Laaziz El Amraoui
,
Dominique Puech
,
Christophe Genthon
,
Ghislain Picard
,
Michael Town
,
Albert Hertzog
,
François Vial
,
Philippe Cocquerez
,
Stephen A. Cohn
,
Terry Hock
,
Jack Fox
,
Hal Cole
,
David Parsons
,
Jordan Powers
,
Keith Romberg
,
Joseph VanAndel
,
Terry Deshler
,
Jennifer Mercer
,
Jennifer S. Haase
,
Linnea Avallone
,
Lars Kalnajs
,
C. Roberto Mechoso
,
Andrew Tangborn
,
Andrea Pellegrini
,
Yves Frenot
,
Jean-Noël Thépaut
,
Anthony McNally
,
Gianpaolo Balsamo
, and
Peter Steinle

The Concordiasi project is making innovative observations of the atmosphere above Antarctica. The most important goals of the Concordiasi are as follows:

  • To enhance the accuracy of weather prediction and climate records in Antarctica through the assimilation of in situ and satellite data, with an emphasis on data provided by hyperspectral infrared sounders. The focus is on clouds, precipitation, and the mass budget of the ice sheets. The improvements in dynamical model analyses and forecasts will be used in chemical-transport models that describe the links between the polar vortex dynamics and ozone depletion, and to advance the under understanding of the Earth system by examining the interactions between Antarctica and lower latitudes.

  • To improve our understanding of microphysical and dynamical processes controlling the polar ozone, by providing the first quasi-Lagrangian observations of stratospheric ozone and particles, in addition to an improved characterization of the 3D polar vortex dynamics. Techniques for assimilating these Lagrangian observations are being developed.

A major Concordiasi component is a field experiment during the austral springs of 2008–10. The field activities in 2010 are based on a constellation of up to 18 long-duration stratospheric super-pressure balloons (SPBs) deployed from the McMurdo station. Six of these balloons will carry GPS receivers and in situ instruments measuring temperature, pressure, ozone, and particles. Twelve of the balloons will release dropsondes on demand for measuring atmospheric parameters. Lastly, radiosounding measurements are collected at various sites, including the Concordia station.

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Fiona Hilton
,
Raymond Armante
,
Thomas August
,
Chris Barnet
,
Aurelie Bouchard
,
Claude Camy-Peyret
,
Virginie Capelle
,
Lieven Clarisse
,
Cathy Clerbaux
,
Pierre-Francois Coheur
,
Andrew Collard
,
Cyril Crevoisier
,
Gaelle Dufour
,
David Edwards
,
Francois Faijan
,
Nadia Fourrié
,
Antonia Gambacorta
,
Mitchell Goldberg
,
Vincent Guidard
,
Daniel Hurtmans
,
Samuel Illingworth
,
Nicole Jacquinet-Husson
,
Tobias Kerzenmacher
,
Dieter Klaes
,
Lydie Lavanant
,
Guido Masiello
,
Marco Matricardi
,
Anthony McNally
,
Stuart Newman
,
Edward Pavelin
,
Sebastien Payan
,
Eric Péquignot
,
Sophie Peyridieu
,
Thierry Phulpin
,
John Remedios
,
Peter Schlüssel
,
Carmine Serio
,
Larrabee Strow
,
Claudia Stubenrauch
,
Jonathan Taylor
,
David Tobin
,
Walter Wolf
, and
Daniel Zhou

The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) forms the main infrared sounding component of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites's (EUMETSAT's) Meteorological Operation (MetOp)-A satellite (Klaes et al. 2007), which was launched in October 2006. This article presents the results of the first 4 yr of the operational IASI mission. The performance of the instrument is shown to be exceptional in terms of calibration and stability. The quality of the data has allowed the rapid use of the observations in operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) and the development of new products for atmospheric chemistry and climate studies, some of which were unexpected before launch. The assimilation of IASI observations in NWP models provides a significant forecast impact; in most cases the impact has been shown to be at least as large as for any previous instrument. In atmospheric chemistry, global distributions of gases, such as ozone and carbon monoxide, can be produced in near–real time, and short-lived species, such as ammonia or methanol, can be mapped, allowing the identification of new sources. The data have also shown the ability to track the location and chemistry of gaseous plumes and particles associated with volcanic eruptions and fires, providing valuable data for air quality monitoring and aircraft safety. IASI also contributes to the establishment of robust long-term data records of several essential climate variables. The suite of products being developed from IASI continues to expand as the data are investigated, and further impacts are expected from increased use of the data in NWP and climate studies in the coming years. The instrument has set a high standard for future operational hyperspectral infrared sounders and has demonstrated that such instruments have a vital role in the global observing system.

Full access
Florence Rabier
,
Steve Cohn
,
Philippe Cocquerez
,
Albert Hertzog
,
Linnea Avallone
,
Terry Deshler
,
Jennifer Haase
,
Terry Hock
,
Alexis Doerenbecher
,
Junhong Wang
,
Vincent Guidard
,
Jean-Noël Thépaut
,
Rolf Langland
,
Andrew Tangborn
,
Gianpaolo Balsamo
,
Eric Brun
,
David Parsons
,
Jérôme Bordereau
,
Carla Cardinali
,
François Danis
,
Jean-Pierre Escarnot
,
Nadia Fourrié
,
Ron Gelaro
,
Christophe Genthon
,
Kayo Ide
,
Lars Kalnajs
,
Charlie Martin
,
Louis-François Meunier
,
Jean-Marc Nicot
,
Tuuli Perttula
,
Nicholas Potts
,
Patrick Ragazzo
,
David Richardson
,
Sergio Sosa-Sesma
, and
André Vargas
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