Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Wei Zhao x
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Shuyi S. Chen
,
James F. Price
,
Wei Zhao
,
Mark A. Donelan
, and
Edward J. Walsh
Full access
Lei Wang
,
Lan Cuo
,
Dongliang Luo
,
Fengge Su
,
Qinghua Ye
,
Tandong Yao
,
Jing Zhou
,
Xiuping Li
,
Ning Li
,
He Sun
,
Lei Liu
,
Yuanwei Wang
,
Tian Zeng
,
Zhidan Hu
,
Ruishun Liu
,
Chenhao Chai
,
Guangpeng Wang
,
Xiaoyang Zhong
,
Xiaoyu Guo
,
Haoqiang Zhao
,
Huabiao Zhao
, and
Wei Yang

Abstract

Upper Brahmaputra (UB) is the largest (∼240,000 km2) river basin of the Tibetan Plateau, where hydrological processes are highly sensitive to climate change. However, constrained by difficult access and sparse in situ observations, the variations in precipitation, glaciers, frozen ground, and vegetation across the UB basin remain largely unknown, and consequently the impacts of climate change on streamflow cannot be accurately assessed. To fill this gap, this project aims to establish a basinwide, large-scale observational network (that includes hydrometeorology, glacier, frozen ground, and vegetation observations), which helps quantify the UB runoff processes under climate–cryosphere–vegetation changes. At present, a multisphere observational network has been established throughout the catchment: 1) 12 stations with custom-built weighing automatic rain/snow meters and temperature probes to obtain elevation-dependent gradients; 2) 9 stations with soil moisture/temperature observations at four layers (10, 40, 80, 120 cm) covering Alpine meadow, grasslands, shrub, and forest to measure vegetation (biomass and vegetation types) and soil (physical properties) simultaneously; 3) 34 sets of probes to monitor frozen ground temperatures from 4,500 to 5,200 m elevation (100-m intervals), and two observation systems to monitor water and heat transfer processes in frozen ground at Xuegela (5,278 m) and Mayoumula (5,256 m) Mountains, for improved mapping of permafrost and active layer characteristics; 4) 5 sets of altimetry discharge observations along ungauged cross sections to supplement existing operational gauges; 5) high-precision glacier boundary and ice-surface elevation observations at Namunani Mountain with differential GPS, to supplement existing glacier observations for validating satellite imagery. This network provides an excellent opportunity to monitor UB catchment processes in great detail.

Full access
Robert A. Houze Jr.
,
Shuyi S. Chen
,
Wen-Chau Lee
,
Robert F. Rogers
,
James A. Moore
,
Gregory J. Stossmeister
,
Michael M. Bell
,
Jasmine Cetrone
,
Wei Zhao
, and
S. Rita Brodzik

The Hurricane Rainband and Intensity Change Experiment (RAINEX) used three P3 aircraft aided by high-resolution numerical modeling and satellite communications to investigate the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina, Ophelia, and Rita. The aim was to increase the understanding of tropical cyclone intensity change by interactions between a tropical cyclone's inner core and rainbands. All three aircraft had dual-Doppler radars, with the Electra Doppler Radar (ELDORA) on board the Naval Research Laboratory's P3 aircraft, providing particularly detailed Doppler radar data. Numerical model forecasts helped plan the aircraft missions, and innovative communications and data transfer in real time allowed the flights to be coordinated from a ground-based operations center. The P3 aircraft released approximately 600 dropsondes in locations targeted for optimal coordination with the Doppler radar data, as guided by the operations center. The storms were observed in all stages of development, from tropical depression to category 5 hurricane. The data from RAINEX are readily available through an online Field Catalog and RAINEX Data Archive. The RAINEX dataset is illustrated in this article by a preliminary analysis of Hurricane Rita, which was documented by multiaircraft flights on five days 1) while a tropical storm, 2) while rapidly intensifying to a category 5 hurricane, 3) during an eye-wall replacement, 4) when the hurricane became asymmetric upon encountering environmental shear, and 5) just prior to landfall.

Full access
Ping Zhao
,
Xiangde Xu
,
Fei Chen
,
Xueliang Guo
,
Xiangdong Zheng
,
Liping Liu
,
Yang Hong
,
Yueqing Li
,
Zuo La
,
Hao Peng
,
Linzhi Zhong
,
Yaoming Ma
,
Shihao Tang
,
Yimin Liu
,
Huizhi Liu
,
Yaohui Li
,
Qiang Zhang
,
Zeyong Hu
,
Jihua Sun
,
Shengjun Zhang
,
Lixin Dong
,
Hezhen Zhang
,
Yang Zhao
,
Xiaolu Yan
,
An Xiao
,
Wei Wan
,
Yu Liu
,
Junming Chen
,
Ge Liu
,
Yangzong Zhaxi
, and
Xiuji Zhou

Abstract

This paper presents the background, scientific objectives, experimental design, and preliminary achievements of the Third Tibetan Plateau (TP) Atmospheric Scientific Experiment (TIPEX-III) for 8–10 years. It began in 2013 and has expanded plateau-scale observation networks by adding observation stations in data-scarce areas; executed integrated observation missions for the land surface, planetary boundary layer, cloud–precipitation, and troposphere–stratosphere exchange processes by coordinating ground-based, air-based, and satellite facilities; and achieved noticeable progress in data applications. A new estimation gives a smaller bulk transfer coefficient of surface sensible heat over the TP, which results in a reduction of the possibly overestimated heat intensity found in previous studies. Summer cloud–precipitation microphysical characteristics and cloud radiative effects over the TP are distinguished from those over the downstream plains. Warm rain processes play important roles in the development of cloud and precipitation over the TP. The lower-tropospheric ozone maximum over the northeastern TP is attributed to the regional photochemistry and long-range ozone transports, and the heterogeneous chemical processes of depleting ozone near the tropopause might not be a dominant mechanism for the summer upper-tropospheric–lower-stratospheric ozone valley over the southeastern TP. The TP thermodynamic function not only affects the local atmospheric water maintenance and the downstream precipitation and haze events but also modifies extratropical atmospheric teleconnections like the Asia–Pacific Oscillation, subtropical anticyclones over the North Pacific and Atlantic, and temperature and precipitation over Africa, Asia, and North America. These findings provide new insights into understanding land–atmosphere coupled processes over the TP and their effects, improving model parameterization schemes, and enhancing weather and climate forecast skills.

Open access
Yaohui Li
,
Xing Yuan
,
Hongsheng Zhang
,
Runyuan Wang
,
Chenghai Wang
,
Xianhong Meng
,
Zhiqiang Zhang
,
Shanshan Wang
,
Yang Yang
,
Bo Han
,
Kai Zhang
,
Xiaoping Wang
,
Hong Zhao
,
Guangsheng Zhou
,
Qiang Zhang
,
Qing He
,
Ni Guo
,
Wei Hou
,
Cunjie Zhang
,
Guoju Xiao
,
Xuying Sun
,
Ping Yue
,
Sha Sha
,
Heling Wang
,
Tiejun Zhang
,
Jinsong Wang
, and
Yubi Yao

Abstract

A major experimental drought research project entitled “Mechanisms and Early Warning of Drought Disasters over Northern China” (DroughtEX_China) was launched by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China in 2015. The objective of DroughtEX_China is to investigate drought disaster mechanisms and provide early-warning information via multisource observations and multiscale modeling. Since the implementation of DroughtEX_China, a comprehensive V-shape in situ observation network has been established to integrate different observational experiment systems for different landscapes, including crops in northern China. In this article, we introduce the experimental area, observational network configuration, ground- and air-based observing/testing facilities, implementation scheme, and data management procedures and sharing policy. The preliminary observational and numerical experimental results show that the following are important processes for understanding and modeling drought disasters over arid and semiarid regions: 1) the soil water vapor–heat interactions that affect surface soil moisture variability, 2) the effect of intermittent turbulence on boundary layer energy exchange, 3) the drought–albedo feedback, and 4) the transition from stomatal to nonstomatal control of plant photosynthesis with increasing drought severity. A prototype of a drought monitoring and forecasting system developed from coupled hydroclimate prediction models and an integrated multisource drought information platform is also briefly introduced. DroughtEX_China lasted for four years (i.e., 2015–18) and its implementation now provides regional drought monitoring and forecasting, risk assessment information, and a multisource data-sharing platform for drought adaptation over northern China, contributing to the global drought information system (GDIS).

Full access