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  • Author or Editor: Weidong Guo x
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Sha Lu
,
Weidong Guo
,
Jun Ge
, and
Yu Zhang

Abstract

The arid and semiarid areas of the Loess Plateau are extremely sensitive to climate change. Land–atmosphere interactions of these regions play an important role in the regional climate. However, most present land surface models (LSMs) are not reasonable and accurate enough to describe the surface characteristics in these regions. In this study, we investigate the effects of three key land surface parameters including surface albedo, soil thermal conductivity, and additional damping on the Noah LSM in simulating the land surface characteristics. The observational data from June to September from 2007 to 2009 collected at the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL) station in northwest China are used to validate the Noah LSM simulations. The results suggest that the retrieved values of surface albedo, soil thermal conductivity, and additional damping based on observations are in closer agreement with those of the MULT scheme for surface albedo, the J75_NOAH scheme for soil thermal conductivity, and the Y08 scheme for additional damping, respectively. Furthermore, the model performance is not obviously affected by surface albedo parameterization schemes, while the scheme of soil thermal conductivity is vital to simulations of latent heat flux and soil temperature and the scheme of additional damping is crucial for simulating net radiation flux, sensible heat flux, and surface soil temperature. A set of optimal parameterizations is proposed for the offline Noah LSM at the SACOL station when the MULT scheme for surface albedo, the J75_NOAH scheme for soil thermal conductivity, and the Y08 scheme for additional damping are combined simultaneously, especially in the case of sensible heat flux and surface soil temperature simulations.

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Zhong Zhong
,
Yuan Sun
,
Xiu-Qun Yang
,
Weidong Guo
, and
Haishan Chen

Abstract

Numerical simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer require careful representation of the surface heterogeneity, which involves the upscaling parameterization scheme for the heterogeneous surface parameters. In this study, the sensitivity comparisons of an effective aerodynamic parameter scheme against the area-weighted average scheme in simulating the land–atmosphere interaction over heterogeneous terrain were carried out by conducting multinested simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model at coarse and fine resolutions, for a typical sea–land breeze case in the Bohai Gulf of China. The results show that the limited-area model is sensitive to the aerodynamic parameter scheme and the effective aerodynamic parameter scheme exhibits a better performance in simulating the variables and parameters in the land–atmosphere interaction process, such as surface wind speed, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, friction velocity, and surface air temperature, among others, for short-term simulations. Particularly, the underestimation of sensible heat flux and overestimation of latent heat flux over heterogeneous terrain with area-weighted average scheme for aerodynamic parameters can be improved with the effective parameter scheme in the coastal regions, where the mean simulation error with the effective parameter scheme is about one-half of that with the average scheme for sensible heat flux and one-third for latent heat flux.

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Jing Sun
,
Kun Yang
,
Hui Lu
,
Xu Zhou
,
Xin Li
,
Yingying Chen
,
Weidong Guo
, and
Jonathon S. Wright

Abstract

Soil organic matter (SOM) is enriched on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, but its effects on the hydrothermal state of the coupled land–atmosphere system remain unclear. This study comprehensively investigates these effects during summer from multiple perspectives based on regional climate modeling, land surface modeling, and observations. Using a regional climate model, we show that accounting for SOM effects lowers cold and wet biases in simulations of this region. SOM increases 2-m air temperature, decreases 2-m specific/relative humidity, and reduces precipitation in coupled simulations. Inclusion of SOM also warms the shallow soil while cooling the deep soil, which may help to preserve frozen soil in this region. This cooling effect is captured by both observations and offline land surface simulations, but it is overestimated in the offline simulations due to no feedback from the atmosphere compared to the coupled ones. Including SOM in coupled climate models could therefore not only imrove their representations of atmospheric energy and water cycles, but also help to simulate the past, present, and future evolution of frozen soil with increased confidence and reliability. Note that these findings are from one regional climate model and do not apply to wetlands.

Significance Statement

The eastern Tibetan Plateau is rich in soil organic matter (SOM), which increases the amount of water the soil can hold while decreasing the rate at which heat moves through it. Although SOM is expected to preserve frozen soil by insulating it from atmospheric warming, researchers have not yet tested the effects of coupled land–atmosphere interactions on this relationship. Using a regional climate model, we show that SOM typically warms and dries the near-surface air, warms the shallow soil, and cools the deep soil by modifying both soil properties and energy exchanges at the land–atmosphere interface. The results suggest that the cooling effect of SOM on deep soil is overestimated when atmospheric feedbacks are excluded.

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