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  • Author or Editor: Wen Chen x
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FengJiao Chen, ShaoXue Sheng, ZhengQing Bao, HuaYang Wen, LianSheng Hua, Ngarukiyimana Jean Paul, and YunFei Fu

Abstract

Utilizing the cloud parameters derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner and the near-surface rainfall detected by the TRMM Precipitation Radar, the differences of cloud parameters for precipitating clouds (PCs) and nonprecipitating clouds (NPCs) are examined in tropical cyclones (TCs) during daytime from June to September 1998–2010. A precipitation delineation scheme that is based on cloud parameter thresholds is proposed and validated using the independent TC datasets in 2011 and observational datasets from Terra/MODIS. Statistical analysis of these results shows that the differences in the effective radius of cloud particles R e are small for PCs and NPCs, while thick clouds with large cloud optical thickness (COT) and liquid water path (LWP) can be considered as candidates for PCs. The probability of precipitation increases rapidly as the LWP and COT increase, reaching ~90%, whereas the probability of precipitation reaches a peak value of only 30% as R e increases. The combined threshold of a brightness temperature at 10.8 μm (BT4) of 270 K and an LWP of 750 g m−2 shows the best performance for precipitation discrimination at the pixel levels, with the probability of detection (POD) reaching 68.2% and false-alarm ratio (FAR) reaching 31.54%. From MODIS observations, the composite scheme utilizing BT4 and LWP also proves to be a good index, with POD reaching 77.39% and FAR reaching 24.2%. The results from this study demonstrate a potential application of real-time precipitation monitoring in TCs utilizing cloud parameters from visible and infrared measurements on board geostationary weather satellites.

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Xuelong Chen, Zhongbo Su, Yaoming Ma, Kun Yang, Jun Wen, and Yu Zhang

Abstract

Roughness height for heat transfer is a crucial parameter in the estimation of sensible heat flux. In this study, the performance of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been tested and evaluated for typical land surfaces on the Tibetan Plateau on the basis of time series of observations at four sites with bare soil, sparse canopy, dense canopy, and snow surface, respectively. Both under- and overestimation at low and high sensible heat fluxes by SEBS was discovered. Through sensitivity analyses, it was identified that these biases are related to the SEBS parameterization of bare soil’s excess resistance to heat transfer (kB −1, where k is the von Kármán constant and B −1 is the Stanton number). The kB −1 of bare soil in SEBS was replaced. The results show that the revised model performs better than the original model.

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Junpeng Wen, Ji Chen, Wenshi Lin, Baolin Jiang, Suishan Xu, and Jing Lan

Abstract

This study investigated heavy frontal rainfall that occurred on 13–14 October 2011 over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China. The frontal rainstorm was simulated using the WRF-ARW Model (version 3.3), which included its urban canopy model. Although the model-simulated convection occurred 2 h early and the second precipitation peak was underestimated, the model represented the formation, development, and extinction of the frontal rainfall and captured the distribution of the peak value. In addition, the averaged value of 49.7 W m−2 was taken as the anthropogenic heat flux (AHF) of the PRD, and two land-use datasets were adopted: one for 1992 and the other for 2011. The simulation revealed that AHF and urban land-use change (ULUC) increased the total rainfall over the PRD by 6.3% and 7.4% and increased the maximum hourly rainfall intensity by 24.6% and 21.2%, respectively. Furthermore, to elucidate the mechanism of AHF and ULUC influence, the rainstorm structure, low-level jet (LLJ), and CAPE of the rainfall event were analyzed. It was found that AHF and ULUC enhanced two strong southward LLJs located over the urban areas, which carried abundant water vapor to the PRD and generated additional upper-level CAPE. This not only sustained steady ascent of the air, but it also created conditions favorable for downward motion, resulting in large persistent convective clouds and heavy frontal rainfall.

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Xiaomin Chen, Kun Zhao, Wen-Chau Lee, Ben Jong-Dao Jou, Ming Xue, and Paul R. Harasti

Abstract

The ground-based velocity track display (GBVTD) was developed to deduce a three-dimensional primary circulation of landfalling tropical cyclones from single-Doppler radar data. However, the cross-beam component of the mean wind cannot be resolved and is consequently aliased into the retrieved axisymmetric tangential wind . Recently, the development of the hurricane volume velocity processing method (HVVP) enabled the independent estimation of ; however, HVVP is potentially limited by the unknown accuracy of empirical assumptions used to deduce the modified Rankine-combined vortex exponent . By combing the GBVTD with HVVP techniques, this study proposes a modified GBVTD method (MGBVTD) to objectively deduce from the GBVTD technique and provide a more accurate estimation of and via an iterative procedure to reach converged and cross-beam component of solutions. MGBVTD retains the strength of both algorithms but avoids their weaknesses. The results from idealized experiments demonstrate that the MGBVTD-retrieved cross-beam component of is within 2 m s−1 of reality. MGBVTD was applied to Hurricane Bret (1999) whose inner core was captured simultaneously by two Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) instruments. The MGBVTD-retrieved cross-beam component of from single-Doppler radar data is very close to that from dual-Doppler radar synthesis using extended GBVTD (EGBVTD); their difference is less than 2 m s−1. The mean difference in the MGBVTD-retrieved from the two radars is ~2 m s−1, which is significantly smaller than that resolved in GBVTD retrievals (~5 m s−1).

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Lingzhi Zhong, Rongfang Yang, Lin Chen, Yixin Wen, Ruiyi Li, Guoqiang Tang, and Yang Hong

Abstract

This study presents a statistical analysis of the variability of the vertical structure of precipitation in the eastern downstream region of the Tibetan Plateau as measured by the Precipitation Radar (PR) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Data were analyzed over an 11-yr time span (January 2004–December 2014). The results show the seasonal and spatial variability of the storm height, freezing level, and bright band for different types of precipitation as well as the characteristics of intensity-related and type-related vertical profiles of reflectivity (VPR). Major findings were as follows: About 90% of the brightband peak reflectivity of stratiform precipitation was less than 32 dBZ, and 40% of the maximum reflectivity of convective precipitation exceeded 35 dBZ. The intensity of surface rainfall rates also depended on the shapes of VPRs. For stratiform precipitation, ice–snow aggregation was faster during moderate and heavy rainfall than it was in light rainfall. Since both the moisture and temperature are lower in winter, the transformation efficiency of hydrometeors becomes slower. Typical Ku-band representative climatological VPRs (CPRs) for stratiform precipitation have been created on the basis of the integration of normalized VPR shape for the given area and the rainfall intensity. All of the findings indicate that the developed CPRs can be used to improve surface precipitation estimates in regions with complex terrain where the ground-based radar net has limited visibility at low levels.

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