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Hui Wang
,
Rong Fu
,
Arun Kumar
, and
Wenhong Li

Abstract

The variability of summer precipitation in the southeastern United States is examined in this study using 60-yr (1948–2007) rainfall data. The Southeast summer rainfalls exhibited higher interannual variability with more intense summer droughts and anomalous wetness in the recent 30 years (1978–2007) than in the prior 30 years (1948–77). Such intensification of summer rainfall variability was consistent with a decrease of light (0.1–1 mm day−1) and medium (1–10 mm day−1) rainfall events during extremely dry summers and an increase of heavy (>10 mm day−1) rainfall events in extremely wet summers. Changes in rainfall variability were also accompanied by a southward shift of the region of maximum zonal wind variability at the jet stream level in the latter period. The covariability between the Southeast summer precipitation and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is also analyzed using the singular value decomposition (SVD) method. It is shown that the increase of Southeast summer precipitation variability is primarily associated with a higher SST variability across the equatorial Atlantic and also SST warming in the Atlantic.

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Robinson I. Negrón Juárez
,
Wenhong Li
,
Rong Fu
,
Katia Fernandes
, and
Andrea de Oliveira Cardoso

Abstract

Six rainfall datasets are compared over the Amazon basin, Northeast Brazil, and the Congo basin. These datasets include three gauge-only precipitation products from the Climate Prediction Center (CPC), Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC), and Brazilian Weather Forecast and Climate Studies Center (CLMNLS), and three combined gauge and satellite precipitation datasets from the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) product. The pattern of the annual precipitation is consistently represented by these data, despite the differences in methods and periods of averaging. Quantitatively, the differences in annual precipitation among these datasets are 5% more than the Amazon domain (0°–15°S, 50°–70°W), 22% more than Northeast Brazil (5°–10°S, 35°–45°W), and 11% more than the Congo domain (5°N–10°S, 15°–30°E). Over the Amazon domain the rainfall variation is well correlated between CPC, TRMM, GPCP, and GPCC (r2 > 0.9) except for the northwestern Amazon, whereas CMAP and CLMNLS were different from these four datasets. Over the Congo basin, the coefficient of determination between these rainfall datasets is generally below 0.7. The empirical orthogonal functions analysis suggests large discrepancies in interannual and decadal variations of rainfall among these datasets, especially for the Congo basin and for the South American region after 1998. In general, CMAP, GPCC, TRMM, and GPCP significantly agree over the tropical areas in South America.

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Chi Zhang
,
Qiuhong Tang
,
Deliang Chen
,
Ruud J. van der Ent
,
Xingcai Liu
,
Wenhong Li
, and
Gebremedhin Gebremeskel Haile

Abstract

Precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) showed different spatial changes during 1979–2016, with an increasing trend over the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) and a slightly negative trend over the southern Tibetan Plateau (STP). The changes in precipitation moisture sources over the NTP and STP are investigated using the improved Water Accounting Model with an atmospheric reanalysis as well as observational precipitation and evaporation data. The results show the region in the northwest (region NW), ranging from the TP to Europe dominated by the westerlies, provides 38.9% of precipitation moisture for the NTP, and the region in the southeast (region SE), ranging from the TP to the Indian Ocean and Indochina dominated by the Asian monsoons, provides 51.4% of precipitation moisture for the STP. For the precipitation increase over the NTP, the SE and TP are the main contributors, contributing around 35.8% and 51.7% of the increase, respectively. The contributions from the SE and TP to the STP are, however, minor and insignificant. Meanwhile, the NW shows a negative trend of −4.2 ± 2.9 mm yr−1 decade−1 (significant at the 0.01 level), which contributes to the negative precipitation trend over the STP. Results during the wet season indicate that moisture sources from the areas dominated by the Asian monsoons have contributed more precipitated moisture for the NTP, but not for the STP. Further analysis reveals that precipitated moisture originating from the Indian subcontinent has increased for the NTP while it has decreased for the STP during 1979–2016.

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