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Liangyi Wang
,
Xihui Gu
,
Louise J. Slater
,
Yangchen Lai
,
Xiang Zhang
,
Dongdong Kong
,
Jianyu Liu
, and
Jianfeng Li

Abstract

In July 2021, Typhoon In-Fa (TIF) triggered a significant indirect heavy precipitation event (HPE) in central China and a direct HPE in eastern China. Both these events led to severe disasters. However, the synoptic-scale conditions and the impacts of these HPEs on future estimations of return periods remain poorly understood. Here, we find that the remote HPE that occurred ∼2200 km ahead of TIF over central China was a predecessor rain event (PRE). The PRE unfolded under the equatorward entrance of the upper-level westerly jet. This event, which encouraged divergent and adiabatic outflow in the upper level, subsequently intensified the strength of the upper-level westerly jet. In contrast, the direct HPE in eastern China was due primarily to the long duration and slow movement of TIF. The direct HPE occurred in areas situated less than 200 km from TIF’s center and to the left of TIF’s propagation trajectory. Anomaly analyses reveal favorable thermodynamic and dynamic conditions and abundant atmospheric moisture that sustained TIF’s intensity. A saddle-shaped pressure field in the north of eastern China and peripheral weak steering flow impeded TIF’s movement northward. Hydrologically, the inclusion of these two HPEs in the historical record leads to a decrease in the estimated return periods of similar HPEs. Our findings highlight the potential difficulties that HPEs could introduce for the design of hydraulic engineering infrastructure as well as for the disaster mitigation measures required to alleviate future risk, particularly in central China.

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Baoqiang Xiang
,
Shian-Jiann Lin
,
Ming Zhao
,
Shaoqing Zhang
,
Gabriel Vecchi
,
Tim Li
,
Xianan Jiang
,
Lucas Harris
, and
Jan-Huey Chen

Abstract

While tropical cyclone (TC) prediction, in particular TC genesis, remains very challenging, accurate prediction of TCs is critical for timely preparedness and mitigation. Using a new version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled model, the authors studied the predictability of two destructive landfall TCs: Hurricane Sandy in 2012 and Super Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Results demonstrate that the geneses of these two TCs are highly predictable with the maximum prediction lead time reaching 11 days. The “beyond weather time scale” predictability of tropical cyclogenesis is primarily attributed to the model’s skillful prediction of the intraseasonal Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) and the westward propagation of easterly waves. Meanwhile, the landfall location and time can be predicted one week ahead for Sandy’s U.S landfall, and two weeks ahead for Haiyan’s landing in the Philippines. The success in predicting Sandy and Haiyan, together with low false alarms, indicates the potential of using the GFDL coupled model for extended-range predictions of TCs.

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