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  • Author or Editor: Xiao-Hua Zhu x
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Zongting Gao
,
Zeng-Zhen Hu
,
Jieshun Zhu
,
Song Yang
,
Rong-Hua Zhang
,
Ziniu Xiao
, and
Bhaskar Jha

Abstract

In this work, the variability of summer [June–August (JJA)] rainfall in northeast China is examined and its predictors are identified based on observational analyses and atmospheric modeling experiments. At interannual time scales, the summer rainfall anomaly in northeast China is significantly correlated with the rainfall anomaly over the Huang-Huai region (32°–38°N, 105°–120°E) in late spring (April–May). Compared with climatology, an earlier (later) rainy season in the Huang-Huai region favors a wet (dry) summer in northeast China. Also, this connection has strengthened since the late 1970s. In addition to the impact of the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in the tropical Indian Ocean, the local soil moisture anomalies caused by the rainfall anomaly in the Huang-Huai region in late spring generate summer general circulation anomalies, which contribute to the rainfall anomaly in northeast China. As a result, when compared with the SSTA, the rainfall anomaly in the Huang-Huai region in late spring can be used as another and even better predictor for the summer rainfall anomaly in northeast China.

The results from atmospheric general circulation model experiments forced by observed SST confirm the diagnostic results to some extent, including the connection of the rainfall anomaly between the Huang-Huai region in April–May and northeastern China in JJA as well as the influence from SSTA in the tropical Indian Ocean. It is shown that eliminating the internal dynamical processes by using the ensemble mean intensifies the connection, implying that the connection of rainfall variation in the two different seasons/regions may be partially caused by the external forcing (e.g., SSTA in the tropical Indian Ocean).

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