Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Yihong Duan x
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Qingqing Li
,
Yuqing Wang
, and
Yihong Duan

Abstract

The impact of evaporation of rainwater on tropical cyclone (TC) intensity and structure is revisited in this study. Evaporative cooling can result in strong downdrafts and produce low–equivalent potential temperature air in the inflow boundary layer, particularly in the region outside the eyewall, significantly suppressing eyewall convection and reducing the final intensity of a TC. Different from earlier findings, results from this study show that outer rainbands still form but are short lived in the absence of evaporation. Evaporation of rainwater is shown to facilitate the formation of outer rainbands indirectly by reducing the cooling due to melting of ice particles outside the inner core, not by the cold-pool dynamics, as previously believed. Only exclusion of evaporation in the eyewall region or the rapid filamentation zone has a very weak effect on the inner-core size change of a TC, whereas how evaporation in the outer core affects the inner-core size depends on how active the inner rainbands are. More (less) active inner rainbands may lead to an increase (a decrease) in the inner-core size.

Full access
Qingqing Li
,
Yuqing Wang
, and
Yihong Duan

Abstract

The effects of diabatic heating and cooling in the rapid filamentation zone (RFZ), within which inner rainbands are often active, on tropical cyclone (TC) structure and intensity are investigated based on idealized numerical experiments using a cloud-resolving TC model (TCM4). The results show that removal of heating (cooling) in the RFZ would reduce (increase) the TC intensity. Diabatic heating in the RFZ plays an important role in increasing the inner-core size whereas diabatic cooling tends to limit the inner-core size increase or even reduce the inner-core size of a TC. Removal of both diabatic heating and cooling in the RFZ greatly suppresses the activity of inner rainbands but leads to the quasi-periodic development of a convective ring immediately outside of the inner core. A similar convective ring also develops in an experiment with the removal of diabatic heating only in the RFZ. With diabatic cooling removed only in the RFZ, an annular-hurricane-like structure arises with the outer rainbands largely suppressed.

Full access
Qingqing Li
,
Yuqing Wang
, and
Yihong Duan

Abstract

The dynamical process of outer rainband formation in a sheared tropical cyclone (TC) is examined in this study using the fully compressible, nonhydrostatic TC model. After the easterly vertical wind shear of 10 m s−1 was imposed upon an intensifying strong TC, an outer rainband characterized by a wavenumber-1 structure formed as a typical principal rainband downshear. Further analysis indicates that the outer rainband formation was closely connected to the activity of the inner rainband previously formed downshear. Moving radially outward, the inner rainband tended to be filamented owing to the strong radial gradient of angular velocity. As the inner rainband approached the outer boundary of the inner core, convection in its middle and upwind segments reinvigorated and nascent convective cells formed upwind of the rainband, caused mainly by the decreased filamentation and stabilization. Subsequently, the rainband reorganized into a typical outer rainband. Three different scenarios are found to be responsible for the outer rainband formation from downshear inner rainbands. The first is the outer rainband forming from an inner rainband downshear as a sheared vortex Rossby wave. The second is the outer rainband forming directly from a single deformation-induced inner rainband. The third is the outer rainband developing from an inner rainband downshear organized from a blend–merger of inner rainbands that were initiated from locally deformed convection upshear right.

Full access
Hui Wang
,
Yuqing Wang
,
Jing Xu
, and
Yihong Duan

Abstract

This study examines the evolution of the warm-core structure during the secondary eyewall formation (SEF) and the subsequent eyewall replacement cycle (ERC) in a numerically simulated tropical cyclone (TC) under idealized conditions. Results show that prior to the SEF, the TC exhibited a double warm-core structure centered in the middle and upper troposphere in the eye region, and as the storm intensified with a rapid outward expansion of tangential winds, the warm core strengthened and a secondary off-center warm ring developed between 8- and 16-km heights near the outer edge of the eye. During the SEF, both the upper-level warm core and the secondary off-center warm ring rapidly strengthened. As the secondary eyewall intensified and contracted and the primary eyewall weakened and dissipated, the off-center warm ring extended inward and merged with the inner warm core to form a warm core typical of a single-eyewall TC. Results from the azimuthal-mean potential temperature budget indicate that the warming in the eye is due to subsidence and the warming above 14-km height outside the eye is largely contributed by radial warm advection in the outflow. The development of the off-center warm ring is largely due to the subsidence warming near the inner edge of the primary eyewall and in the moat area and the warming by diabatic heating in the upper part of the inner eyewall below 14-km height. Further analysis indicates that the eddy advection also played some role in the warming above 12-km height in the upper troposphere.

Full access
Hui Wang
,
Yuqing Wang
,
Jing Xu
, and
Yihong Duan

Abstract

The axisymmetric and asymmetric aspects of the secondary eyewall formation (SEF) in a numerically simulated tropical cyclone (TC) under idealized conditions were analyzed. Consistent with previous findings, prior to the SEF, the tangential wind of the TC experienced an outward expansion both above and within the boundary layer near and outside the region of the SEF later. This outward expansion was found to be closely related to the top-down development and inward propagation of a strong outer rainband, which was characterized by deeper and more intense convection upwind and shallower and weaker convection downwind. In response to diabatic heating in the outer rainband was inflow in the mid- to lower troposphere, which brought the absolute angular momentum inward and spun up tangential wind in the inflow region and also in the convective region because of vertical advection. As a result, as the outer rainband intensified and spiraled cyclonically inward, perturbation tangential and radial winds also spiraled cyclonically inward and downward along the rainband. As it approached the outer edge of the rapid filamentation zone outside the primary eyewall, the downwind sector of the rainband in the boundary layer was rapidly axisymmetrized. Continuous inward propagation and axisymmetrization and secondarily the merging with inner rainbands led to the spinup of tangential wind in the boundary layer, enhancing surface enthalpy flux and convection and eventually leading to the simulated SEF. Our results demonstrate that the simulated SEF was a top-down process and was mainly triggered by asymmetric dynamics.

Full access
Johnny C. L. Chan
,
Yihong Duan
, and
Lynn K. Shay

Abstract

The interaction between a tropical cyclone (TC) and the underlying ocean is investigated using an atmosphere–ocean coupled model. The atmospheric model is developed from the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model version 4 MM4 and the ocean model consists of a mixed layer and an inactive stagnant layer beneath. Coupling between the atmosphere and the ocean models is achieved through wind stress and surface heat and moisture fluxes that depend on the sea surface temperature (SST). In the absence of a background flow, the atmospheric component consists of only a predefined vortex with an initial central pressure and the radius of the 15 m s−1 wind. The basic control experiments demonstrate that the coupled model can simulate the development of a TC and its interaction with the ocean.

Changes in TC intensity are sensitive to those of SST and the response is almost instantaneous. An SST of ∼27°C is found to be the threshold for TC development. In addition, the initial depth of the ocean mixed layer has an appreciable effect on TC intensity, which also depends on the movement of the TC. Furthermore, the vertical structure of ocean (vertical temperature gradient in the stagnant layer and temperature differential between the two layers) plays a significant role in modulating TC intensity.

In the presence of a warm core eddy (WCE), a TC intensifies before its center reaches the edge of the WCE. Although the TC attains maximum intensity at the center of the WCE, it does not weaken to its original intensity after leaving the WCE. During the entire passage of the TC, the SST at the center of the WCE decreases by about only 1°C, and the WCE generally maintains its original characteristics. However, two cold pools are observed around its periphery. A similar intensification process occurs when a TC moves over a sharp SST gradient and a locally deep ocean mixed layer. These results are explained by the interaction between the ocean and the TC circulation as well as the change in the total surface heat flux.

Full access