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  • Author or Editor: Ying Lin x
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Yueting Gong, Ying Li, and Da-Lin Zhang

Abstract

Tropical cyclones (TCs) tend to change translation direction and speed when moving across Taiwan’s Central Mountain Range (CMR), which makes forecasting of landfalling points a challenging task. This study examines the statistical characteristics of unusual TC tracks around Taiwan Island during the 66-yr period of 1949–2014. Results show that 1) about 10% more TCs were deflected to the right than to the left as they moved across the CMR, but with more occurrences of the latter on Taiwan’s eastern coast and southern strait; 2) TCs around Taiwan Island moved slower than the average speed over the western North Pacific Ocean but then exhibited anomalous acceleration along Taiwan’s eastern coast and anomalous deceleration over the southern Taiwan Strait; 3) about 33% of TCs passing the island were accompanied by terrain-induced secondary low pressure centers (SCs), more favored in the northwestern, southwestern, and southeastern quadrants, with the TC–SC separation distance varying from 33 to 643 km; 4) about 36% of landfalling TCs experienced discontinuous tracks, with an average separation distance of 141 km at the time when TC centers were replaced by SCs, and smaller Froude numbers than those associated with continuous-tracking TCs; and 5) a total of 12 TCs had looping movements near Taiwan Island, most of which were accompanied by SCs on their southern or western sides. Results also indicate that a stronger SC was likely to take place when a stronger TC approached the CMR with a shorter separation distance and that a weaker SC was likely to take place when a weaker TC approached the CMR with a longer separation distance.

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Xuerong Zhang, Ying Li, Da-Lin Zhang, and Lianshou Chen

Abstract

Despite steady improvements in tropical cyclone (TC) track forecasts, it still remains challenging to predict unusual TC tracks (UNTKs), such as the tracks of sharp turning or looping TCs, especially after they move close to coastal waters. In this study 1059 UNTK events associated with 564 TCs are identified from a total of 1320 TCs, occurring in the vicinity of China’s coastal waters, during the 65-yr period of 1949–2013, using the best-track data archived at the China Meteorological Administration’s Shanghai Typhoon Institute. These UNTK events are then categorized into seven types of tracks—sharp westward turning (169), sharp eastward turning (86), sharp northward turning (223), sharp southward turning (46), looping (153), rotating (199), and zigzagging (183)—on the basis of an improved UNTK classification scheme. Results show significant annual variability of unusual tracking TCs, ranging between 2 and 18 per year, many of which experience more than one UNTK event in the same or different UNTK types during their life spans. The monthly distribution of the UNTK events resembles that of TCs, with more occurring in June–November. An analysis of their spatial distributions reveals that all of the UNTK events tend to take place in the areas to the south of 30°N, most frequently in the South China Sea and to the east of the Philippines. The results suggest that more attention be paid to the improved understanding and prediction of UNTK events so that the current positive trend in TC track forecast accuracy can continue for many years to come.

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Dian Wen, Ying Li, Da-Lin Zhang, Lin Xue, and Na Wei

Abstract

A statistical analysis of tropical upper-tropospheric trough (TUTT) cells over the western North Pacific Ocean (WNP) during 2006 to 2015 is performed using the NCEP Final reanalysis. A total of 369 TUTT-cell events or 6836 TUTT cells are identified, with a peak frequency in July. Most TUTT cells form to the east of 150°E and then move southwestward with a mean speed of 6.6 m s−1 and a mean life span of 4.4 days. About 75% of the TUTT cells have radii of <500 km with 200-hPa central heights of <1239.4 dam. In general, TUTT cells exhibit negative height anomalies above 450 hPa, with their peak amplitudes at 200 hPa, pronounced cold anomalies in the 650–200-hPa layer, and significant cyclonic vorticity in the 550–125-hPa layer. A comparison of the composite TUTT cells among the eastern, central, and western WNP areas shows the generation of an intense cold-cored vortex as a result of the southward penetration of a midlatitude trough into a climatological TUTT over the eastern WNP region. The TUTT cell with pronounced rotation is cut off from the midlatitude westerlies after moving to the central WNP region, where it enters its mature phase, under the influence of northeasterly flow. The TUTT cell weakens in rotation and shrinks in size, diminishing within the TUTT after arriving at the western WNP region. Results suggest that, although most TUTT cells may diminish before reaching the western WNP, their vertical influences may extend to the surface layer and last longer than their signals at 200 hPa.

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