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Xu Dao, Yu-Chi Lin, Fang Cao, Shi-Ying Di, Yihang Hong, Guanhua Xing, Jianjun Li, Pingqing Fu, and Yan-Lin Zhang

Abstract

The North China Plain (NCP) is becoming one of the most polluted areas characterized by a high frequency of haze pollution. However, the spatial and temporal evolutions of aerosol chemical compositions in such a highly polluted region are not well understood due to the lack of a long-term and comprehensive observation-based network. China’s National Aerosol Composition Monitoring Network (NACMON) has conducted comprehensive offline and online measurements of compositions and optical properties of airborne aerosols in order to systematically investigate the formation process, source apportionments of haze, and interactions between haze pollution and climate change. The objective of the observations is to provide information for policy makers to make strategies for the alleviation of haze occurrence. In this paper, we present instrumentations and methodologies as well as the preliminary results of the offline observations in NACMON stations over the NCP region. The implications and future perspectives of the network are also summarized. Benefiting from simultaneous observations from this network, we found that secondary aerosols were the dominant component in haze pollution. High anthropogenic emissions, low wind speed, and high relative humidity (RH) facilitated gas-to-particle transformation and resulted in high PM2.5 formation (PM2.5 is particulate matter that is smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter). Sulfate-dominant or nitrate-dominant aerosols during the haze period were driven by ambient RH. Moreover, the contributions of coal combustion and biomass burning to PM2.5 revealed downward trends, whereas secondary aerosols showed upward trends over the last decade. Thus, we highlighted that strict control of anthropogenic emissions of precursor gases, such as NOx, NH3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), will be an important way to decrease PM2.5 pollution in the NCP region.

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Xu Dao, Yu-Chi Lin, Fang Cao, Shi-Ying Di, Yihang Hong, Guanhua Xing, Jianjun Li, Pingqing Fu, and Yan-Lin Zhang
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Fedor Mesinger, Geoff DiMego, Eugenia Kalnay, Kenneth Mitchell, Perry C. Shafran, Wesley Ebisuzaki, Dušan Jović, Jack Woollen, Eric Rogers, Ernesto H. Berbery, Michael B. Ek, Yun Fan, Robert Grumbine, Wayne Higgins, Hong Li, Ying Lin, Geoff Manikin, David Parrish, and Wei Shi

In 1997, during the late stages of production of NCEP–NCAR Global Reanalysis (GR), exploration of a regional reanalysis project was suggested by the GR project's Advisory Committee, “particularly if the RDAS [Regional Data Assimilation System] is significantly better than the global reanalysis at capturing the regional hydrological cycle, the diurnal cycle and other important features of weather and climate variability.” Following a 6-yr development and production effort, NCEP's North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) project was completed in 2004, and data are now available to the scientific community. Along with the use of the NCEP Eta model and its Data Assimilation System (at 32-km–45-layer resolution with 3-hourly output), the hallmarks of the NARR are the incorporation of hourly assimilation of precipitation, which leverages a comprehensive precipitation analysis effort, the use of a recent version of the Noah land surface model, and the use of numerous other datasets that are additional or improved compared to the GR. Following the practice applied to NCEP's GR, the 25-yr NARR retrospective production period (1979–2003) is augmented by the construction and daily execution of a system for near-real-time continuation of the NARR, known as the Regional Climate Data Assimilation System (R-CDAS). Highlights of the NARR results are presented: precipitation over the continental United States (CONUS), which is seen to be very near the ingested analyzed precipitation; fits of tropospheric temperatures and winds to rawinsonde observations; and fits of 2-m temperatures and 10-m winds to surface station observations. The aforementioned fits are compared to those of the NCEP–Department of Energy (DOE) Global Reanalysis (GR2). Not only have the expectations cited above been fully met, but very substantial improvements in the accuracy of temperatures and winds compared to that of GR2 are achieved throughout the troposphere. Finally, the numerous datasets produced are outlined and information is provided on the data archiving and present data availability.

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