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  • Author or Editor: Yuan Yang x
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Peng Ji
,
Xing Yuan
,
Chunxiang Shi
,
Lipeng Jiang
,
Guoqing Wang
, and
Kun Yang

Abstract

With the improvement of meteorological forcings and surface parameters, high-resolution land surface modeling is expected to provide locally relevant information. Yet, its added value over the state-of-the-art global reanalysis products requires long-term evaluations over large areas, given uneven climate warming and significant land cover change. Here, the Conjunctive Surface-Subsurface Process version 2 (CSSPv2) model, with a reasonable representation of runoff generation, subgrid soil moisture variability and urban dynamics, is calibrated and used to perform a 6-km resolution simulation over China during 1979-2017. Evaluations against observations at thousands of stations and several satellite-based products show that the CSSPv2 has 67%, 29%, and 15% lower simulation errors for snow depth, evapotranspiration (ET), and surface and root-zone soil moisture, respectively, than nine global products. The median Kling-Gupta efficiency of the streamflow for 83 river basins is 0.66 after bulk calibrations, which is 0.38 higher than that of global datasets. The CSSPv2 also accurately simulates urban heat islands (UHIs) and the patterns and magnitudes of long-term snow depth, ET and soil moisture trends. However, the global products do not detect UHIs and overestimate the trends (or show opposite trends) of snow depth and ET. Sensitivity experiments with coarse-resolution forcings and surface parameters reveal that advanced model physics and high-resolution surface parameters are vital for improved simulations of snow depth, ET, soil moisture and UHIs, whereas high-resolution meteorological forcings are critical for modeling long-term trends. Our research emphasizes the substantial added value of long-term high-resolution land surface modeling to present global products at continental scales.

Restricted access
Zhong Zhong
,
Yuan Sun
,
Xiu-Qun Yang
,
Weidong Guo
, and
Haishan Chen

Abstract

Numerical simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer require careful representation of the surface heterogeneity, which involves the upscaling parameterization scheme for the heterogeneous surface parameters. In this study, the sensitivity comparisons of an effective aerodynamic parameter scheme against the area-weighted average scheme in simulating the land–atmosphere interaction over heterogeneous terrain were carried out by conducting multinested simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model at coarse and fine resolutions, for a typical sea–land breeze case in the Bohai Gulf of China. The results show that the limited-area model is sensitive to the aerodynamic parameter scheme and the effective aerodynamic parameter scheme exhibits a better performance in simulating the variables and parameters in the land–atmosphere interaction process, such as surface wind speed, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, friction velocity, and surface air temperature, among others, for short-term simulations. Particularly, the underestimation of sensible heat flux and overestimation of latent heat flux over heterogeneous terrain with area-weighted average scheme for aerodynamic parameters can be improved with the effective parameter scheme in the coastal regions, where the mean simulation error with the effective parameter scheme is about one-half of that with the average scheme for sensible heat flux and one-third for latent heat flux.

Full access
Yi Liu
,
Ye Zhu
,
Liliang Ren
,
Jason Otkin
,
Eric D. Hunt
,
Xiaoli Yang
,
Fei Yuan
, and
Shanhu Jiang

Abstract

Flash droughts are extreme phenomena that have been identified using two different approaches. The first approach identifies these events based on unusually rapid intensification rates, whereas the second approach implicitly identifies short-term features. This latter approach classifies flash droughts into two types, namely, precipitation deficit and heat wave flash droughts (denoted as PDFD and HWFD). In this study, we evaluate these two approaches over the Yellow River basin (YRB) to determine which approach provides more accurate information about flash droughts and why. Based on the concept of intensification rate, a new quantitative flash drought identification method focused on soil moisture depletion during the onset–development phase is proposed. Its performance was evaluated by comparing the onset time and spatial dynamics of the identified flash droughts with PDFD and HWFD events identified using the second approach. The results show that the rapid-intensification approach is better able to capture the continuous evolution of a flash drought. Since the approach for identifying PDFD and HWFD events does not consider changes in soil moisture with time, it cannot ensure that the events exhibit rapid intensification, nor can it effectively capture flash droughts’ onset. Evaluation of the results showed that the chosen hydrometeorological variables and corresponding thresholds, particularly that of temperature, are the main reasons for the poor performance of the PDFD and HWFD identification approach. This study promotes a deeper understanding of flash droughts that is beneficial for drought monitoring, early warning, and mitigation.

Free access