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Shaofeng Hua
Baojun Chen
Yubao Liu
Gang Chen
Yang Yang
Xiaobo Dong
Zhen Zhao
Yang Gao
Xu Zhou
Rong Zhang
, and
Jing Duan


Airborne microphysical measurements of a frontal precipitation event in North China were used to evaluate five microphysics schemes for predicting the bulk properties of ice particles. They are the Morrison and Thompson schemes, which use predetermined categories, the 1-ice- and 2-ice-category configurations of the Predicted Particle Properties (P3) scheme and the Ice-Spheroids Habit Model with Aspect-Ratio Evolution (ISHMAEL) scheme, which model the evolution of particle properties, and the spectral bin fast version (SBM_fast) microphysics scheme within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. WRF simulations with these schemes successfully reproduced the observed temperature and the liquid and total water content profiles at corresponding times and locations, allowing for a credible comparison of the predictions of particle properties with the aircraft measurements. The simulated results with the 1-ice-category P3 scheme are in good agreement with the observations for all the particle properties we examined. The 2-ice-category P3 scheme overestimates the spectrum width and underestimates the number concentration, which can be alleviated by reducing the ice collection efficiency. The simulation with the SBM_fast scheme deviates from the observed ice particle size distributions since the mass–diameter relationship of snow-sized particles adopted in this scheme may not be applicable to this stratiform cloud case.

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