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  • Author or Editor: Zac Flamig x
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Yixin Wen
Yang Hong
Guifu Zhang
Terry J. Schuur
Jonathan J. Gourley
Zac Flamig
K. Robert Morris
, and
Qing Cao


Ground-based polarimetric weather radar is arguably the most powerful validation tool that provides physical insight into the development and interpretation of spaceborne weather radar algorithms and observations. This study aims to compare and resolve discrepancies in hydrometeor retrievals and reflectivity observations between the NOAA/National Severe Storm Laboratory “proof of concept” KOUN polarimetric Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) and the spaceborne precipitation radar (PR) on board NASA’s Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) platform. An intercomparison of PR and KOUN melting-layer heights retrieved from 2 to 5 km MSL shows a high correlation coefficient of 0.88 with relative bias of 5.9%. A resolution volume–matching technique is used to compare simultaneous TRMM PR and KOUN reflectivity observations. The comparisons reveal an overall bias of <0.2% between PR and KOUN. The bias is hypothesized to be from non-Rayleigh scattering effects and/or errors in attenuation correction procedures applied to Ku-band PR measurements. By comparing reflectivity with respect to different hydrometeor types (as determined by KOUN’s hydrometeor classification algorithm), it is found that the bias is from echoes that are classified as rain–hail mixture, wet snow, graupel, and heavy rain. These results agree with expectations from backscattering calculations at Ku and S bands, but with the notable exception of dry snow. Comparison of vertical reflectivity profiles shows that PR suffers significant attenuation at lower altitudes, especially in convective rain and in the melting layer. The attenuation correction performs very well for both stratiform and convective rain, however. In light of the imminent upgrade of the U.S. national weather radar network to include polarimetric capabilities, the findings in this study will potentially serve as the basis for nationwide validation of space-based precipitation products and also invite synergistic development of coordinated space–ground multisensor precipitation products.

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