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Paul J. DeMott
,
Ottmar Möhler
,
Olaf Stetzer
,
Gabor Vali
,
Zev Levin
,
Markus D. Petters
,
Masataka Murakami
,
Thomas Leisner
,
Ulrich Bundke
,
Holger Klein
,
Zamin A. Kanji
,
Richard Cotton
,
Hazel Jones
,
Stefan Benz
,
Maren Brinkmann
,
Daniel Rzesanke
,
Harald Saathoff
,
Mathieu Nicolet
,
Atsushi Saito
,
Bjorn Nillius
,
Heinz Bingemer
,
Jonathan Abbatt
,
Karin Ardon
,
Eli Ganor
,
Dimitrios G. Georgakopoulos
, and
Clive Saunders

Understanding cloud and precipitation responses to variations in atmospheric aerosols remains an important research topic for improving the prediction of climate. Knowledge is most uncertain, and the potential impact on climate is largest with regard to how aerosols impact ice formation in clouds. In this paper, we show that research on atmospheric ice nucleation, including the development of new measurement systems, is occurring at a renewed and historically unparalleled level. A historical perspective is provided on the methods and challenges of measuring ice nuclei, and the various factors that led to a lull in research efforts during a nearly 20-yr period centered about 30 yr ago. Workshops played a major role in defining critical needs for improving measurements at that time and helped to guide renewed efforts. Workshops were recently revived for evaluating present research progress. We argue that encouraging progress has been made in the consistency of measurements using the present generation of ice nucleation instruments. Through comparison to laboratory cloud simulations, these ice nuclei measurements have provided increased confidence in our ability to quantify primary ice formation by atmospheric aerosols.

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