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Zhihua Zheng, Ramsey R. Harcourt, and Eric A. D’Asaro


Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) provides important scaling laws for flow properties in the surface layer of the atmosphere and has contributed to most of our understanding of the near-surface turbulence. The prediction of near-surface vertical mixing in most operational ocean models is largely built upon this theory. However, the validity of MOST in the upper ocean is questionable due to the demonstrated importance of surface waves in the region. Here we examine the validity of MOST in the statically unstable oceanic surface layer, using data collected from two open ocean sites with different wave conditions. The observed vertical temperature gradients are found to be about half of those predicted by MOST. We hypothesize this is attributable to either the breaking of surface waves, or Langmuir turbulence generated by the wave–current interaction. Existing turbulence closure models for surface wave breaking and for Langmuir turbulence are simplified to test these two hypotheses. Although both models predict reduced temperature gradients, the simplified Langmuir turbulence model matches observations more closely, when appropriately tuned.

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Guang-Yu Shi, Tadahiro Hayasaka, Atsumu Ohmura, Zhi-Hua Chen, Biao Wang, Jian-Qi Zhao, Hui-Zheng Che, and Li Xu


Solar radiation is one of the most important factors affecting climate and the environment. Routine measurements of irradiance are valuable for climate change research because of long time series and areal coverage. In this study, a set of quality assessment (QA) algorithms is used to test the quality of daily solar global, direct, and diffuse radiation measurements taken at 122 observatories in China during 1957–2000. The QA algorithms include a physical threshold test (QA1), a global radiation sunshine duration test (QA2), and a standard deviation test applied to time series of annually averaged solar global radiation (QA3). The results show that the percentages of global, direct, and diffuse solar radiation data that fail to pass QA1 are 3.07%, 0.01%, and 2.52%, respectively; the percentages of global solar radiation data that fail to pass the QA2 and QA3 are 0.77% and 0.49%, respectively. The method implemented by the Global Energy Balance Archive is also applied to check the data quality of solar radiation in China. Of the 84 stations with a time series longer that 20 yr, suspect data at 35 of the sites were found. Based on data that passed the QA tests, trends in ground solar radiation and the effect of the data quality assessment on the trends are analyzed. There is a decrease in ground solar global and direct radiation in China over the years under study. Although the quality assessment process has significant effects on the data from individual stations and/or time periods, it does not affect the long-term trends in the data.

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