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Xingwen Jiang
Song Yang
Yueqing Li
Zongjian Ke
Jianping Li
, and
Haoran Hu


In this study, the authors investigate the variations and predictability of wintertime upper-tropospheric temperature (UTT) over Asia, which are often linked to severe climate anomalies, and the associated features of large-scale circulation and surface climate. The ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) and hindcast of the NCEP Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2), are mainly analyzed.

The first empirical orthogonal function mode of UTT shows a dipole structure, with a strong positive center over southern China and a weak negative center over Mongolia. The second mode is featured by a monopole variation, with a positive center appearing from the northwestern Tibetan Plateau (TP) to Japan. The third mode exhibits a tripole pattern, with two positive centers over Pakistan and the Sea of Japan and a negative center over central Asia. The first mode is linked to El Niño–Southern Oscillation, accompanied by surface warming over the southeastern TP and deficient precipitation over southern China, the Korean Peninsula, and from equatorial East Africa to the east of the TP. The second mode is associated with circulation anomalies similar to those associated with the Arctic Oscillation, with significant warming over East Asia. The third mode features two wave trains and is linked to the Middle East jet stream, and is associated with excessive precipitation from the eastern TP to southern Japan. The CFSv2 can predict the first mode skillfully by several months in advance, but it shows little skill in predicting the second and third modes.

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