Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Neal Butchart x
  • Journal of Climate x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Neal Butchart, John Austin, Jeffrey R. Knight, Adam A. Scaife, and Mark L. Gallani

Abstract

Results are presented from two 60-yr integrations of the troposphere–stratosphere configuration of the U.K. Met. Office’s Unified Model. The integrations were set up identically, apart from different initial conditions, which, nonetheless, were both representative of the early 1990s. Radiative heating rates were calculated using the IS92A projected concentrations of the well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, but changes in stratospheric ozone and water vapor were not included. Sea surface conditions were taken from a separate coupled ocean–atmosphere experiment. Both integrations reproduced the familiar pattern of tropospheric warming and a stratospheric cooling increasing with height to about −1.4 K per decade at 1 mb. There was good agreement in the trends apart from in the polar upper stratosphere and, to a greater extent, the polar lower-to-middle stratosphere, where there is significant interannual variability during the winter months. Even after decadal smoothing, the trends in the northern winter were still overshadowed by the variability resulting from the planetary wave forcing from the troposphere. In general, the decadal variability of the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere was not a manifestation of a uniform change throughout each winter but, as with other models, there was a change in the frequency of occurrence of sudden stratospheric warmings. Unlike previous studies, the different results from the two simulations confirm the change in frequency of warmings was due to internal atmospheric variability and not the prescribed changes in GHG concentrations or sea surface conditions. In the southern winter stratosphere the flux of wave activity from the troposphere increased, but any additional dynamical heating was more than offset by the extra radiative cooling from the growing total GHG concentration. Consequently the polar vortex became more stable, with the spring breakdown delayed by 1–2 weeks by the 2050s. Polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) amounts inferred from the predicted temperatures increased in both hemispheres, especially in the early winter. In the Southern Hemisphere, the region of PSC formation expanded both upward and equatorward in response to the temperature trend.

Full access
Scott M. Osprey, Lesley J. Gray, Steven C. Hardiman, Neal Butchart, and Tim J. Hinton

Abstract

An examination is made of stratospheric climate, circulation, and variability in configurations of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2 (HadGEM2) differing only in stratospheric resolution and the placement of the model lid. This is made in the context of historical reconstructions of twentieth-century climate. A reduction in the westerly bias in the Northern Hemisphere polar night jet is found in the high-top model. The authors also find significant differences in the expression of tropical stratospheric variability, finding improvements in the high-top model for the presence of the quasi-biennial oscillation, for tropical upwelling consistent with interim European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) data, and for interannual changes in stratospheric water vapor concentration comparable to satellite observations. Further differences are seen at high latitudes during winter in the frequency of occurrence of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). The occurrence rate of SSWs in the high-top simulations, (7.2 ± 0.5) decade−1, is statistically consistent with observations, (6.0 ± 1.0) decade−1, whereas they are one-third as frequent in the low-top simulations, (2.5 ± 0.5) decade−1. Furthermore, the structure of the timing of winter final warmings is only captured in the high-top model. A similar characterization for the time evolution of the width of the tropical upper troposphere is found between model configurations. It is concluded that an adequate representation of the stratosphere is required to capture the important modes of tropical and extratropical stratospheric variability in models.

Full access
William J. M. Seviour, Steven C. Hardiman, Lesley J. Gray, Neal Butchart, Craig MacLachlan, and Adam A. Scaife

Abstract

Using a set of seasonal hindcast simulations produced by the Met Office Global Seasonal Forecast System, version 5 (GloSea5), significant predictability of the southern annular mode (SAM) is demonstrated during the austral spring. The correlation of the September–November mean SAM with observed values is 0.64, which is statistically significant at the 95% confidence level [confidence interval: (0.18, 0.92)], and is similar to that found recently for the North Atlantic Oscillation in the same system. Significant skill is also found in the prediction of the strength of the Antarctic stratospheric polar vortex at 1 month average lead times. Because of the observed strong correlation between interannual variability in the strength of the Antarctic stratospheric circulation and ozone concentrations, it is possible to make skillful predictions of Antarctic column ozone amounts. By studying the variation of forecast skill with time and height, it is shown that skillful predictions of the SAM are significantly influenced by stratospheric anomalies that descend with time and are coupled with the troposphere. This effect allows skillful statistical forecasts of the October mean SAM to be produced based only on midstratosphere anomalies on 1 August. Together, these results both demonstrate a significant advance in the skill of seasonal forecasts of the Southern Hemisphere and highlight the importance of accurate modeling and observation of the stratosphere in producing long-range forecasts.

Open access
Steven C. Hardiman, Ian A. Boutle, Andrew C. Bushell, Neal Butchart, Mike J. P. Cullen, Paul R. Field, Kalli Furtado, James C. Manners, Sean F. Milton, Cyril Morcrette, Fiona M. O’Connor, Ben J. Shipway, Chris Smith, David N. Walters, Martin R. Willett, Keith D. Williams, Nigel Wood, N. Luke Abraham, James Keeble, Amanda C. Maycock, John Thuburn, and Matthew T. Woodhouse

Abstract

A warm bias in tropical tropopause temperature is found in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM), in common with most models from phase 5 of CMIP (CMIP5). Key dynamical, microphysical, and radiative processes influencing the tropical tropopause temperature and lower-stratospheric water vapor concentrations in climate models are investigated using the MetUM. A series of sensitivity experiments are run to separate the effects of vertical advection, ice optical and microphysical properties, convection, cirrus clouds, and atmospheric composition on simulated tropopause temperature and lower-stratospheric water vapor concentrations in the tropics. The numerical accuracy of the vertical advection, determined in the MetUM by the choice of interpolation and conservation schemes used, is found to be particularly important. Microphysical and radiative processes are found to influence stratospheric water vapor both through modifying the tropical tropopause temperature and through modifying upper-tropospheric water vapor concentrations, allowing more water vapor to be advected into the stratosphere. The representation of any of the processes discussed can act to significantly reduce biases in tropical tropopause temperature and stratospheric water vapor in a physical way, thereby improving climate simulations.

Full access
Neal Butchart, I. Cionni, V. Eyring, T. G. Shepherd, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, J. Austin, C. Brühl, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Cordero, M. Dameris, R. Deckert, S. Dhomse, S. M. Frith, R. R. Garcia, A. Gettelman, M. A. Giorgetta, D. E. Kinnison, F. Li, E. Mancini, C. McLandress, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, D. A. Plummer, E. Rozanov, F. Sassi, J. F. Scinocca, K. Shibata, B. Steil, and W. Tian

Abstract

The response of stratospheric climate and circulation to increasing amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone recovery in the twenty-first century is analyzed in simulations of 11 chemistry–climate models using near-identical forcings and experimental setup. In addition to an overall global cooling of the stratosphere in the simulations (0.59 ± 0.07 K decade−1 at 10 hPa), ozone recovery causes a warming of the Southern Hemisphere polar lower stratosphere in summer with enhanced cooling above. The rate of warming correlates with the rate of ozone recovery projected by the models and, on average, changes from 0.8 to 0.48 K decade−1 at 100 hPa as the rate of recovery declines from the first to the second half of the century. In the winter northern polar lower stratosphere the increased radiative cooling from the growing abundance of GHGs is, in most models, balanced by adiabatic warming from stronger polar downwelling. In the Antarctic lower stratosphere the models simulate an increase in low temperature extremes required for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation, but the positive trend is decreasing over the twenty-first century in all models. In the Arctic, none of the models simulates a statistically significant increase in Arctic PSCs throughout the twenty-first century. The subtropical jets accelerate in response to climate change and the ozone recovery produces a westward acceleration of the lower-stratospheric wind over the Antarctic during summer, though this response is sensitive to the rate of recovery projected by the models. There is a strengthening of the Brewer–Dobson circulation throughout the depth of the stratosphere, which reduces the mean age of air nearly everywhere at a rate of about 0.05 yr decade−1 in those models with this diagnostic. On average, the annual mean tropical upwelling in the lower stratosphere (∼70 hPa) increases by almost 2% decade−1, with 59% of this trend forced by the parameterized orographic gravity wave drag in the models. This is a consequence of the eastward acceleration of the subtropical jets, which increases the upward flux of (parameterized) momentum reaching the lower stratosphere in these latitudes.

Full access