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Verner E. Suomi

Energy production, distribution, and use will need to be continuously “managed” into the indefinite future. Part of this management will involve an understanding of how our future energy uses will affect the global environment and how the global environment will affect our energy uses.

The atmospheric system is intimately linked to energy production and to environmental impact. Of special importance is the extreme variability of weather and climate and their pervasive nature in almost all phases of human activities. The atmosphere may have been too lightly regarded for its energy relationships in recent decades.

The Dixy Lee Ray Report The Nation's Energy Future (1973) recommended increased basic research in those areas of the social and physical sciences related to energy systems and their uses. The atmospheric sciences can contribute substantially to research in this area.

The present report identifies those parts of various energy systems that are especially sensitive to weather variability. The report focuses attention on those aspects of the atmospheric sciences that could contribute substantially to improved utilization, efficiency, and conservation of future energy systems and resources.

From the text of the report we select and recommend a significant increase in basic research in the following areas of the atmospheric sciences:

  1. Short-range and long-range specification and prediction of weather variables directly related to energy system operations.
  2. Atmospheric dispersion and chemical transformations of pollutants, particularly in the planetary boundary layer.
  3. The control of radiation and temperature through cloud modification.
  4. Micrometeorological and microclimatic effects on agricultural productivity and efficiency.

In addition, we recommend any energy-oriented basic research program in the atmospheric sciences participate in the emerging redirection of the nation's global atmospheric research program (GARP) to assure relevance of climatic information to energy problems.

We recognize the probability of success may be small in the areas of extended-range forecasting and certain aspects of weather modification. However, these probabilities are not zero, and almost any measure of success would have a great impact on energy systems.

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Sanjay Shridhar Limaye and Verner E. Suomi

Abstract

We present results on cloud motions on Venus obtained over a period of 3.5 days from Mariner 10 television images. The implied atmosphere flow is almost zonal everywhere on the visible disk, and is in the same retrograde sense as the solid planet. Objective analysis of motions suggests presence of jet cores (−130 m s−1) and organized atmospheric waves. The longitudinal mean meridional profile of the zonal component of motion of the ultraviolet features shows presence of a midlatitude jet stream (−110 m s−1). The mean zonal component is −97 m s−1 at the equator. The mean meridional motion at most latitudes is directed toward the pole in either hemisphere and is at least an order of magnitude smaller so that the flow is nearly zonal. A tentative conclusion from the limited coverage available from Mariner 10 is that at the level of ultraviolet features mean meridional circulation is the dominant mode of poleward angular momentum transfer as opposed to the eddy circulation.

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Verner E. Suomi and William C. Siien

Abstract

According to radiometersonde observations, the net vertical flux divergence of infrared radiation is positively correlated with the outward flux at the top of the atmosphere. Measurements of the latter quantity from the Explorer VII satellite are shown to he correlated with tropospheric temperature, such that warm air on the average is cooled less than cold air at the same latitude by infrared radiation. Calculations of the generation of eddy available potential energy by this process are presented and shown to be significant.

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Romeo R. Sabatini and Verner E. Suomi

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No abstract available.

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Thomas H. Vonder Haar and Verner E. Suomi

Abstract

This paper summarizes an extended time series of measurements of the earth's radiation budget from the first and second generation United States meteorological satellites. Values of planetary albedo, infrared radiant emittance, and the resulting net radiation budget are now available for 39 months during the period 1962–66. These measurements show a mean global albedo of 30%, and net radiation balance within measurement accuracy. The discussion treats global and zonally averaged values for the “mean annual” case, for “mean seasons,” and includes a comparison of measurements during the same seasons in different years. The role of these radiation budget measurements in the total global energy balance is noted.

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MELVIN WEINSTEIN and VERNER E. SUOMI

Abstract

Long-wave radiation loss maps, based on Explorer VII measurements of terrestrial radiation at night, are analyzed and compared with composite nephanalyses and frontal analyses. Results indicate a definite relationship between the radiation centers and their corresponding surface low and high pressure centers, their locations, 24-hour intensifications and movements, and the conformity of these movements to the 500-mb. geostrophic flow. Some of the potential applications to analysis and forecasting are noted.

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Verner E. Suomi and Robert J. Parent
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Earl W. Barrett and Verner E. Suomi

Abstract

Following a brief review of the assumptions involved in the usual (Laplacian) expression for the speed of sound waves, an instrument, the sonic thermometer, is described which utilizes this relationship to measure the air temperature. The advantages of the sonic thermometer are then discussed, the main advantages being the absence of radiational errors and extremely low lag—a result of the fact that the measured variable, the speed of sound, is independent of the properties of the measuring elements.

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David W. Martin and Verner E. Suomi

Signal enhancement is advanced as a method for isolating selected features of ATS images. The discussion covers enhancement theory, limitations, and one important application, the isolation of deep convection within tropical cloud clusters. Comparisons of brightness contoured ATS images with radar images from BOMEX test the validity of associating deep convection with very bright clouds. The enhancement technique is then applied in a census of Atlantic cloud clusters, and in case studies of individual clusters.

It is shown that in spite of difficulties involving control of the ATS signal, enhancement is an effective, precise tool for isolating selected features of ATS images. Comparisons of ATS and radar images establish a high correlation of bright areas on ATS with large radar echoes; therefore, enhanced ATS pictures emphasizing the upper levels of the brightness range effectively isolate deep convection. The brightness structure of convective clouds is such that they can be studied over a three-to four-hour period around local noon on pictures uncorrected for changes of incident and reflected radiation. A simple cosine law correction for incident radiation can appreciably extend this period.

The census and case studies show that the eastern Atlantic was at least as convectively active as the western Atlantic during June and July, 1969, and had a significantly greater total area of cloud clusters in 1969 and 1970. Convective cores have a great range of size, spacing, and lifetime: nevertheless, an ordering invariably can be perceived. This most often is in the form of lines or bands; waves, spirals, or solitary cores are also observed. Lifetimes are a few minutes to several hours or more; large cores last longer. Displacement of cloud clusters is accomplished by a complex combination of band and cell movement and propagation. Structure, as evidenced by core behavior, is varied and complex.

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Nadav Levanon, Juris Afanasjevs, Robert A. Oehlkers, and Verner E. Suomi

Abstract

The pressure sensor for the Tropical Wind Energy conversion and Reference Level Experiment (TWERLE) is described. Key design features of the sensor are: capacitive coupling, reference at midrange, up-down counting, passive oven, storage at flight pressure and prelaunch calibration. Sensor specifications are given which are based on the production results of 440 units. Drift, as estimated from simulated life tests, is 1 mb per 6 months. The overall weight of the sensor, including thermal package, is 180 g.

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