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Randal D. Koster, Rolf H. Reichle, Siegfried D. Schubert, and Sarith P. Mahanama

times by larger-scale teleconnections such as the Madden–Julian oscillation, the Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation cycle (ENSO), leading to a complex interplay of space and time scales. Further complicating the problem is the impact of other facets of the climate system (radiation, wind speed, etc.) on soil moisture length scales through the evapotranspiration process as well as the presence of potentially relevant length

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Sapna Rana, James McGregor, and James Renwick

corresponding to EOF1 and EOF2 of DJF zonal winds at 200 hPa represented a pattern similar to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)–Arctic Oscillation (AO), respectively, with a statistically significant correlation between the PC time series and winter precipitation. Syed et al. (2009) also found that both ENSO and NAO have a significant influence on winter precipitation over southwest-central Asia (including northern Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan), where

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Pavel Ya Groisman, Richard W. Knight, Thomas R. Karl, David R. Easterling, Bomin Sun, and Jay H. Lawrimore

major macrocirculation variables such as El Niño–Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, and with the development of the North American monsoon system ( Cayan et al. 1999 ; Gershunov and Barnett 1998 ; Mauget 2003 ; Wallace and Thompson 2002 ; Barlow et al. 1998 ; Higgins et al. 1997 ). While acknowledging these efforts, we want to point out that this study is mostly an attempt to log and summarize what we know about the long

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Kabir Rasouli, John W. Pomeroy, and Paul H. Whitfield

, 2012 : Uncertainty in climate change projections: the role of internal variability . Climate Dyn. , 38 , 527 – 546 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0977-x . 10.1007/s00382-010-0977-x Dornes , P. F. , J. W. Pomeroy , A. Pietroniro , S. K. Carey , and W. L. Quinton , 2008 : Influence of landscape aggregation in modelling snow-cover ablation and snowmelt runoff in a sub-arctic mountainous environment . Hydrol. Sci. J. , 53 , 725 – 740 , https://doi.org/10.1623/hysj.53.4.725 . 10

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Helene B. Erlandsen, Ingjerd Haddeland, Lena M. Tallaksen, and Jørn Kristiansen

western part and a drier eastern part. f. Study period Interannual weather variability in Norway is influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), especially in winter. A negative phase of the NAO is usually concurrent with cold and dry conditions in Norway, while a positive NAO phase usually indicates warm and wet conditions. To evaluate to what degree the sensitivities found vary with weather variability, the study is conducted over a time period when the phase of the NAO changed from positive

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T. G. Huntington and M. Billmire

precipitation for each basin were summarized on an annual basis. Monthly North Atlantic Oscillation data were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) web site ( http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/precip/CWlink/pna/nao.shtml ). To estimate ET for this study we used the water balance approach where the difference between precipitation ( P ) and runoff (Ru) can be described by the following equation ( Scanlon et al. 2002 ; Healy et al. 2007 ): where P − Ru is partitioned

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Kirsten L. Findell and Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

1. Introduction a. Motivation Feedbacks from the earth's surface to the atmosphere are an instrumental part of global climatic processes. Extensive research on the El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomenon connects anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the eastern Pacific Ocean with dramatic shifts in weather patterns over much of the globe. Like SSTs, vegetation cover and soil moisture content control the partitioning of energy fluxes at the earth's surface, and, like SSTs, land surface

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Jiangfeng Wei, Michael G. Bosilovich, and David M. Mocko

and Sudan has a large oscillation between oceanic sources in the winter and spring and terrestrial sources during summer into fall. Much of southern Africa has a similar variation, but 6 months out of phase. The general east–west gradient over North America is maintained throughout the year but fluctuates from a predominance of marine sources in winter to a much larger portion of continental sources in summer. Most of Eurasia also shows the same annual cycle as North America. Very strong gradients

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Maheswor Shrestha, Lei Wang, Toshio Koike, Yongkang Xue, and Yukiko Hirabayashi

from 452 to 8848 m (Mt. Everest) above mean sea level (MSL). It has complex physiographic variability with tropical forest in low-lying areas to semiarid and arctic environments in high-elevation regions. The catchment area is about 3700 km 2 . The annual precipitation averages about 1850 mm and has high altitudinal variability, from around 2500 mm at low elevation (below 3000 m) to around 600 mm at high elevation (above 4500 m). The climate has four seasons: winter (December–February), premonsoon

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Tian Zhou, Bart Nijssen, Huilin Gao, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

United States decreased by as much as 30% in June because of irrigation and reservoir regulations, while monthly streamflow increased by as much as 30% in Arctic river basins in Asia during the winter low-flow period. Oki and Kanae (2006) argue that these variations in streamflow can lead to water-related hazards such as droughts and floods if societies fail to anticipate or monitor these changes in the hydrological cycle. Furthermore, variations in reservoir storage have important implications for

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