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Xiaogang Shi
,
Stephen J. Déry
,
Pavel Ya. Groisman
, and
Dennis P. Lettenmaier

. Climate , 24 , 1451 – 1460 . Male , D. , and R. Granger , 1981 : Snow surface energy exchange . Water Resour. Res. , 17 , 609 – 627 . Mann , H. B. , 1945 : Nonparametric tests against trend . Econometrica , 13, 245 – 259 . Marsh , P. , and J. Pomeroy , 1996 : Meltwater fluxes at an Arctic forest-tundra site . Hydrol. Processes , 10 , 1383 – 1400 . McClelland , J. W. , S. J. Déry , B. J. Peterson , R. M. Holmes , and E. F. Wood , 2006 : A pan-Arctic evaluation

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Vivek K. Arora
and
George J. Boer

Figure 2 from four temperate coniferous sites, three tropical evergreen sites, and three tundra sites for a range of root biomasses. These data (kindly made available by R. Jackson) are a subset of the data used in J96 from the sources listed in Table 1 . The data show that a constant rooting depth and root distribution profile are not very realistic. For all three biomes an increase in root biomass is associated with an increase in rooting depth and a change in the root distribution profile such

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Amanda H. Lynch
and
Wanli Wu

: Snow–albedo feedback and the spring transition in a regional climate system model: Influence of land surface model. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 29 037–29 049. ——, G. B. Bonan, F. S. Chapin III, and W. Wu, 1999a: The impact of tundra ecosystems on the surface energy budget and climate of Alaska. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6647–6660. ——, F. S. Chapin III, L. D. Hinzman, W. Wu, E. Lilly, G. Vourlitis, and E. Kim, 1999b: Surface energy balance on the Arctic tundra:Measurements and models. J

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David A. Robinson
and
George Kukla

stippled. (Over arctic tundra, 50 cells, shown as inferred, were measured at random.)resolution with optical compensation for motionacross the 3000 km scan tract. Bidirectional reflectanceof the earth-atmosphere system is recorded and normalized for solar illumination. Gain changes aresmooth except at low solar elevations. Sensor saturation is not a problem over snow-covered regions(Bunting and d'Entremont, 1982). The spectral range of the DMSP sensor is between0.4 and 1.1 ~zm, where the majority of

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Sarah M. Kang
,
Baek-Min Kim
,
Dargan M. W. Frierson
,
Su-Jong Jeong
,
Jeongbin Seo
, and
Yoojeong Chae

vegetated surfaces in Arctic permafrost and tundra are replaced with extensive grasslands, and boreal forests in northern Russia and Canada expand poleward ( Jeong et al. 2011 ). These changes in extratropical vegetation affect not only regional climate but also remote tropical climate. Arctic vegetation changes amplify high-latitude warming by reducing the albedo of the land, and by increasing atmospheric water vapor ( Swann et al. 2010 ; Falloon et al. 2012 ; Chae et al. 2015 ). Midlatitude

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E. A. Zakharova
,
A. V. Kouraev
,
S. Biancamaria
,
M. V. Kolmakova
,
N. M. Mognard
,
V. A. Zemtsov
,
S. N. Kirpotin
, and
B. Decharme

natural conditions compared to the Ob’ and Yenisey Rivers. Here we refer to the fact that PNPT rivers share similar climatic and geomorphological conditions: the same atmospheric circulation, frozen postglacial sediments, presence of continuous or discontinuous permafrost, flat bog plateaus, and sparse forest-tundra vegetation. This makes them a good proxy of climate variability of the Arctic part of western Siberia. Originating on the northern slopes of the Sibirskiye Uvaly hills (altitude ranging

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Diana L. Verseghy
and
Murray D. MacKay

selected for this study was centered on western Canada ( Fig. 1 ). This region represents a globally significant area of high subgrid-scale lake coverage. The selected model grid spacing was 0.25° (about 25 km), a standard spacing for regional climate models. At this spacing, many grid cells have fractional subgrid lake coverages of 0.3 or more ( Fig. 2 ). The domain stretches from the high Arctic tundra in the north, through the wide band of boreal forest running from the northwest to the southeast

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Stephen J. Déry
,
Marc Stieglitz
,
Åsa K. Rennermalm
, and
Eric F. Wood

sufficiently enhance the atmospheric demand for moisture so as to overwhelm any increase in precipitation. In turn, this would lead to a drying out of soils on the North Slope of Alaska. Barber et al. (2000) present evidence of this tendency in the boreal forest near Fairbanks, Alaska, where there has been a reduction in the growth of white spruce as a consequence of temperature-induced drought stress over the twentieth century. In a modeling study of carbon dynamics in Arctic tundra, Stieglitz et al

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Zhuo Wang
,
John Walsh
,
Sarah Szymborski
, and
Melinda Peng

.1175/JCLI-D-11-00466.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00466.1 Bhatt , U. S. , and Coauthors , 2010 : Circumpolar Arctic tundra vegetation change is linked to sea-ice decline . Earth Interact. , 14 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010EI315.1 . 10.1175/2010EI315.1 Bintanja , R. , and F. M. Selten , 2014 : Future increases in Arctic precipitation linked to local evaporation and sea-ice retreat . Nature , 509 , 479 – 482 , https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13259 . 10.1038/nature13259 Blanchard

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Mark C. Serreze
and
Roger G. Barry

tending tomaintaining the feature. Similarly, in summer, an Arctic front, separate from the Polar Front, develops overnorthern Eurasia (Krebs and Barry 1970) and southeastwards across Canada (Bryson 1966; Barry 1967).Reed and Kunkel (1960) consider the front to be primarily thermal in origin, mrising in response to the largesummertime heating contrasts along the land-oceanboundary, but the later analyses referred to show itslocation to be along the boreal forest/tundra boundaryor ecotone, Reed and

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