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Weiming Sha, Takeshi Kawamura, and Hiromasa Ueda

can produce undular bores ahead ofit. Obviously, the common feature of the proposedgeneration mechanisms for internal bores or internalgravity waves in the atmosphere is that they are theresult of interaction between a gravity current and theexisting temperature inversion. Therefore, any kind ofatmospheric gravity current, such as deeply penetratingsea-breeze heads, thunderstorm outflows, katabaticflows and cold fronts, that moves into an existing inversion waveguide can be expected to generate

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Bryan C. Weare and Fred M. Snell

of 0.60 for sr~ow-ice and 0.07 for land-seagiving an area-weighted average of 0.12 at a surfacetemperature of 288 K seems quite reasonable. In aglobal annually averaged model further adjustmentsto take account of the solar zenith angle dependenceseem entirely unnecessary. However, with extension ofthe model atmosphere tc. zonally averaged quantities,the albedo dependence ort zenith angle assumes greaterimportance. Also, the interplay of surface reflectivityand atmospheric absorbers becomes

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Joshua P. Hacker

, M. , J. V-G. de Arellano , M. A. LeMone , and C. C. van Heerwaarden , 2008 : Mean and flux horizontal variability of virtual potential temperature, moisture, and carbon dioxide: Aircraft observations and LES study. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 136 , 4435 – 4451 . Holt , T. R. , D. Noyogi , F. Chen , K. Manning , M. LeMone , and A. Qureshi , 2006 : Effect of land–atmosphere interactions on the IHOP 24–25 May 2002 convection case. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134 , 113 – 133 . Hong

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Masaru Inatsu, Hitoshi Mukougawa, and Shang-Ping Xie

the westerly jet core than the zonal variation in tropical SSTs. In this study, we will extend IMX's work by examining the three-dimensional structure of stationary eddies in response to three types of forcing: extratropical land–sea distribution, tropical SST variation, and orography. We will further investigate the relationship and interaction between stationary and transient eddies. The latter concerns the formation of the storm track. For this purpose, we have carried out perpetual January

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M. Segal, R. W. Arritt, and J. E. Tillman

section 2 . The impacts of surface sensible heat flux on the thermal structure of cold fronts on Earth have been found to be important in various situations (e.g., Segal et al. 1993a ; Miller et a1. 1996 ). Therefore, comparisons of similar situations of cold air outbreaks on Mars and Earth are useful and were included in the scaling. The effect of variation in wind speed, consideration of longwave irradiance flux divergence, as well as the time dependence of the atmosphere–soil thermal interaction

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Richard W. Zurek and Robert M. Haberle

)ABSTRACT We have computed a steady state, zonally symmetric response of an atmospheric circulation to the combinedeffects of the very large zonal-mean diabatic heating and thermotidal forcing thought to exist in the dustyMartian atmosphere during one of its episodic global dust storms. The zonal-mean components of the tidalfiux-convergences of momentum and heat are computed using an existing classical atmospheric tidal modelconstrained by the surface pressure observations at the two Viking Lander

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Igor N. Polonsky and Michael A. Box

other words, an adequate model of global aerosol distribution, taking into account their seasonal and spatial variability, has to be developed. The integrated field experiments being conducted [e.g., ASTEX/MAGE in June 1992 ( Huebert et al. 1996 ), SCAR-B in August–September 1995 ( Kaufman et al. 1998 ), ACE-1 in November–December 1995 (Bates et al. 1988), TARFOX in July 1996 ( Russell et al. 1999 )] can specify many features of local aerosol atmosphere models and their results are the best

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Xingchao Chen, Fuqing Zhang, and Kun Zhao

of convection on days with and without the sea breeze in São Paulo, Brazil. Rao and Fuelberg (2000) focused on the role of Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability in determining the time and location of convection behind the sea-breeze front over Cape Canaveral, Florida. Baker et al. (2001) coupled the atmosphere and land surface models to identify the roles of initial soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land-breeze circulations on sea-breeze-initiated precipitation over central Florida

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Peter R. Bannon

between the system and its surroundings results solely in the production of entropy. It is argued that this material entropy production is the signature of the internal activity of the atmosphere, ocean, and land in absorbing solar radiation, redistributing that energy both vertically and horizontally, and then emitting that energy back out to space as terrestrial radiation. The efficiency of that interaction is the product of the entropy production rate times the output temperature divided by the

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Christian L. Keppenne and Andrew P. Ingersoll

, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California(Manuscript received 25 August 1993, in final form 7 November 1994)ABSTRACT A shallow water model with realistic topography and idealized zonal wind forcing is used to investigateorographically forced modes in the Martian atmosphere. Locally, the model produces barotropic modes withperiods within the broad range of periods observed at the sites of Viking Lander I and//(VL1 and VL2) duringthe fall and spring seasons. Its variability at those sites

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