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Lingjing Zhu, Jiming Jin, and Yimin Liu

( Dee et al. 2011 ) were used to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions for our regional climate model. The data were at a 0.5° horizontal resolution and a 6-h time interval. b. Model and methodology The WRF Model version 3.6 ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ) was employed in this study to explore the effects of TP lakes on regional climate. WRF is a nonhydrostatic mesoscale modeling system that is often adopted for regional weather and climate simulations and forecasts. The lake model in WRF was

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Zongjian Ke, Xingwen Jiang, Jinming Feng, and Zunya Wang

horizontal resolution of 2.5° × 2.5° covering the period from 1850 to 2014 from https://rda.ucar.edu/datasets/ds299.0/ . The climatology represents the period from 1981 to 2010. The winter of a specific year refers to December of the current corresponding year and January and February of the next year (DJF). The two-sided Student’s t test was used to check the statistical significance of the correlation and regression. 3. Results a. Climatological precipitation and atmospheric circulation over SWC The

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Yafang Zhong, Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

statistical approach is applied to relate ALEXI ESI to USCRN soil moisture and temperature. The data and methods are described in sections 2 and 3 , respectively. Section 4 presents results, with conclusions and discussions provided in section 5 . 2. Data a. Evaporative stress index In its current formulation, the ESI represents standardized anomalies in the reference ET fraction, ET/ET ref , where ET is the actual ET and ET ref is a reference ET flux that would occur under optimal meteorological

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Jefferson S. Wong, Xuebin Zhang, Shervan Gharari, Rajesh R. Shrestha, Howard S. Wheater, and James S. Famiglietti

for land cover, albedo, leaf area index, and enhanced vegetation index. Mu et al. (2011) have further improved the ET algorithm by considering vegetation cover fraction, soil heat flux, daytime and nighttime evapotranspiration, including evaporation from wet canopy surfaces and from saturated wet soil surfaces, and improving calculations of stomatal conductance, aerodynamic resistance and boundary layer resistance. Hereafter we call this ET product MODIS. 2) GLEAM The Global Land Evaporation

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Wade T. Crow, Concepcion Arroyo Gomez, Joaquín Muñoz Sabater, Thomas Holmes, Christopher R. Hain, Fangni Lei, Jianzhi Dong, Joseph G. Alfieri, and Martha C. Anderson

analysis that reflects the best-available estimate of current soil moisture conditions based on all prior information. Specifically, SM analyses represent volumetric soil moisture (m 3 m −3 ) content at 0000 UTC for three vertical HTESSEL soil layers (0–7, 7–28, and 28–100 cm). Our period of interest is the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (1 May–30 September). Unfortunately, 2012 ET and SM OL fields were lost during the cyclical purging of experimental results at ECMWF. Therefore, 2012 results shown

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Steven M. Martinaitis, Andrew P. Osborne, Micheal J. Simpson, Jian Zhang, Kenneth W. Howard, Stephen B. Cocks, Ami Arthur, Carrie Langston, and Brian T. Kaney

-on-Forecast (WoF) system by Lawson et al. (2018) demonstrated the significant progress made with 0–3-h QPFs via advanced data assimilation methods; moreover, Lundquist et al. (2019) describes how high-resolution NWP models can better represent total annual precipitation than the current collection of gauge observations in mountainous terrain. Numerous studies assessed the quality of polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite-derived QPEs and discussed the potential for satellite-derived fields to mitigate

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Ganesh R. Ghimire, Witold F. Krajewski, and Felipe Quintero

2019 ; Wu et al. 2020 ) at many operational river forecasting centers. As a result, it has remained a challenge to the hydrologic community to extend forecast lead times from a few hours to a week (e.g., Cuo et al. 2011 ) using QPFs. Particularly at short lead times, it has been shown that the short-term extrapolation of current radar–rainfall patterns can increase forecasting skill (e.g., Vivoni et al. 2006 ) in some cases. Ensemble QPFs, also regarded as an alternative to deterministic

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Abhishekh Kumar Srivastava, Richard Grotjahn, Paul Aaron Ullrich, and Mojtaba Sadegh

–2005) and RCP8.5 (2049–2098) simulations of regional climate models at 0.22° grid spacing in the NA-CORDEX ( Mearns et al. 2017 ). The 12 RCMs analyzed here are run with boundary conditions from four GCM simulations from the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archive ( Taylor et al. 2012 ). The list of RCMs with their host institutions is given in Table 1 . Detailed information on the RCMs, such as dynamical core, model components, model physics and parameterization

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Anna-Maria Tilg, Flemming Vejen, Charlotte Bay Hasager, and Morten Nielsen

. Criteria used for quality control of the LPM disdrometer data. In some cases, e.g., criterion 9 in Table 2 , quality control by simple boundaries is not satisfying ( Larsen and Schönhuber 2018 ). Small drops with a terminal velocity outside a specific range of the terminal velocity can be drops splashed from the housing as mentioned for example by Angulo-Martínez et al. (2018) . Montero-Martínez et al. (2009) and Montero-Martínez and García-García (2016) investigate the physical background of

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Witold F. Krajewski, Ganesh R. Ghimire, and Felipe Quintero

.g., Villarini et al. 2011a , 2013 ; Mallakpour and Villarini 2015 ; Villarini et al. 2011b ). The U.S. Geological Survey currently operates about 140 stream gauges in the state ( Fig. 1 ), which provide 15-min resolution stage data that can be converted to discharge using well-maintained and frequently updated rating curves. The USGS record of 15-min data has only 17 years but we claim that this is sufficient to illustrate the objectives of our study. Though the Iowa Flood Center has added 250 stage

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