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W. M. De Kock, R. C. Blamey, and C. J. C. Reason

rainfall recorded as late as 25 January 1981 over the study region and particularly in the Laingsburg region (about 100 km east of the eastern boundary of the red box in Fig. 7 ), where much devastation and loss of life occurred on 24 and 25 January ( Taljaard 1985 ). Figure 7 also shows different moisture sources between the COL and AR events. In the case of the COL, there is offshore flow of warm dry air over eastern South Africa that picks up moisture from the warm Agulhas Current, which flows

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Caroline M. Wainwright, Emily Black, and Richard P. Allan

represents an update to the RCP8.5 emissions scenario (the highest emission scenario for CMIP5); both produce a radiative forcing of 8.5 W m −2 in 2100 ( Van Vuuren et al. 2011 ; O’Neill et al. 2016 ). While some have argued that this pathway is unrealistic, it should be noted that current emissions are in line with the RCP8.5 scenario ( Schwalm et al. 2020 ). The SSP245 scenario represents a medium emissions scenario and updates the RCP4.5 pathway; both produce a radiative forcing of 4.5 W m −2 in

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Dayal Wijayarathne, Sudesh Boodoo, Paulin Coulibaly, and David Sills

in 1943 ( Sills and Joe 2019 ; Douglas 1990 ). Since then, the radar network was gradually expanded, and the application of weather radar in hydrometeorological applications has evolved significantly. The current Canadian radar network includes 31 radar stations and covers most of the populated areas ( Joe and Lapczak 2002 ). This radar network provides reflectivity measurement at a range of 256 km in a radius around the radar site and a Doppler coverage at a range of 120 km around the site

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Lingjing Zhu, Jiming Jin, and Yimin Liu

( Dee et al. 2011 ) were used to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions for our regional climate model. The data were at a 0.5° horizontal resolution and a 6-h time interval. b. Model and methodology The WRF Model version 3.6 ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ) was employed in this study to explore the effects of TP lakes on regional climate. WRF is a nonhydrostatic mesoscale modeling system that is often adopted for regional weather and climate simulations and forecasts. The lake model in WRF was

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Xiangbo Feng, Wei Zhang, Zhenglei Zhu, Amulya Chevuturi, and Wenlong Chen

lower boundary conditions of the river networks. Seawater intrudes into the river channel from estuaries, which can ultimately alter the WLs. When SL is higher and/or river streamflow is lower, seawater can intrude further up. Mean SL in the northern part of SCS has risen by >2 mm yr −1 over the past 60 years, with accelerated rate in the most recent decades (e.g., Feng and Tsimplis 2014 ; Cheng et al. 2016 ; Feng and Cheng 2019 ). In the meantime, SL presents distinct temporal variability

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Zongjian Ke, Xingwen Jiang, Jinming Feng, and Zunya Wang

horizontal resolution of 2.5° × 2.5° covering the period from 1850 to 2014 from https://rda.ucar.edu/datasets/ds299.0/ . The climatology represents the period from 1981 to 2010. The winter of a specific year refers to December of the current corresponding year and January and February of the next year (DJF). The two-sided Student’s t test was used to check the statistical significance of the correlation and regression. 3. Results a. Climatological precipitation and atmospheric circulation over SWC The

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Wade T. Crow, Concepcion Arroyo Gomez, Joaquín Muñoz Sabater, Thomas Holmes, Christopher R. Hain, Fangni Lei, Jianzhi Dong, Joseph G. Alfieri, and Martha C. Anderson

analysis that reflects the best-available estimate of current soil moisture conditions based on all prior information. Specifically, SM analyses represent volumetric soil moisture (m 3 m −3 ) content at 0000 UTC for three vertical HTESSEL soil layers (0–7, 7–28, and 28–100 cm). Our period of interest is the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (1 May–30 September). Unfortunately, 2012 ET and SM OL fields were lost during the cyclical purging of experimental results at ECMWF. Therefore, 2012 results shown

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Jefferson S. Wong, Xuebin Zhang, Shervan Gharari, Rajesh R. Shrestha, Howard S. Wheater, and James S. Famiglietti

for land cover, albedo, leaf area index, and enhanced vegetation index. Mu et al. (2011) have further improved the ET algorithm by considering vegetation cover fraction, soil heat flux, daytime and nighttime evapotranspiration, including evaporation from wet canopy surfaces and from saturated wet soil surfaces, and improving calculations of stomatal conductance, aerodynamic resistance and boundary layer resistance. Hereafter we call this ET product MODIS. 2) GLEAM The Global Land Evaporation

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Ganesh R. Ghimire, Witold F. Krajewski, and Felipe Quintero

2019 ; Wu et al. 2020 ) at many operational river forecasting centers. As a result, it has remained a challenge to the hydrologic community to extend forecast lead times from a few hours to a week (e.g., Cuo et al. 2011 ) using QPFs. Particularly at short lead times, it has been shown that the short-term extrapolation of current radar–rainfall patterns can increase forecasting skill (e.g., Vivoni et al. 2006 ) in some cases. Ensemble QPFs, also regarded as an alternative to deterministic

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Abhishekh Kumar Srivastava, Richard Grotjahn, Paul Aaron Ullrich, and Mojtaba Sadegh

–2005) and RCP8.5 (2049–2098) simulations of regional climate models at 0.22° grid spacing in the NA-CORDEX ( Mearns et al. 2017 ). The 12 RCMs analyzed here are run with boundary conditions from four GCM simulations from the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archive ( Taylor et al. 2012 ). The list of RCMs with their host institutions is given in Table 1 . Detailed information on the RCMs, such as dynamical core, model components, model physics and parameterization

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