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Tal Ezer and George L. Mellor

660 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME22A Numerical Study of the Variability and the Separation of the Gulf Stream,Induced by Surface Atmospheric Forcing and Lateral Boundary Flows TAL EZER AND GEORGE L. MELLORProgram in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey(Manuscript received 2 July 1991, in final form 7 October 199 l)ABSTRACT A

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A. E. Gargett, T. B. Sanford, and T. R. Osborn

August 1978, in final form 19 June 1979) ABSTRACT Observations of turbulent energy dissipation rate E in the deep surface mixed layer at a mid-Sargassosite are presented: two occupations of this site include a large range of local meteorological forcing. Twofrontal passages and a large time interval between profiles during the first series of measurementspreclude examination of the turbulent kinetic energy balance: qualitatively, a profile taken during thestrongest win

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Kathleen A. Edwards and Kathryn A. Kelly

product. Throughout, the seasonal anomaly of variables rather than the annual mean anomaly is given, except for the seasonal width of the CC and the cloud clearing distance ( section 2e ), which include their annual means. The plots are labeled spring, summer, autumn, and winter on 21 March, 19 June, 22 September, and 21 December, respectively. As shown in Fig. 4 , one measure of the resulting heat budget is the misfit (shaded) between HSR (heavy solid line) and the sum of the forcing terms (light

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Jiuxing Xing and Alan M. Davies

model, nested within a shelfwide model [in a similar manner to the North Channel model of Davies et al. (1999, manuscript submitted to J. Geophys. Res. ) ] here we develop a three-dimensional, primitive equation, baroclinic model of the Irish Sea, based upon our previous modeling work in the region ( Xing and Davies 1995 , 1996a , b ). Initial calculations are performed using real hourly meteorological and tidal forcing for 1994 and 1990 in order to make a qualitative comparison with the

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Ming Li and Chris Garrett

. The model we use to simulate LC is that of Craik and Leibovich ( Craik 1977 ; Leibovich 1977 ) in which the Stokes drift of surface waves tilts the vertical vortex lines of a near-surface downwind jet to produce streamwise vorticity with surface convergence at the jet maximum. The jet is then reinforced by continued acceleration, by the wind stress, of the converging surface flow. Li and Garrett (1995, hereafter LG95) confirm that the vortex force associated with the Stokes drift is powerful

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Raymond W. Schmitt

to model cirrus clouds. Remarkably, he seemed to realize that a more rapid diffusionof heat relative to solute played a role in the experiments. However, he oversimplified the physics and incorrectlyassumed that the "interflltration of minute, thread-like streams" was a general result of superposing heavy fluidover light fluid. Interestingly, Lord Rayleigh became aware of these experiments more than two decades later.Here newly discovered evidence is presented that Rayleigh repeated the Jevons

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Cornelia Köberle and Rüdiger Gerdes

Wegener Institute over the last 50 years. After a short description of model components and forcing data ( section 2 ), we consider the climatological freshwater balance in the model over the integration period ( section 3 ). Section 4 describes the variability of the freshwater balance, while we discuss the mechanisms that force this variability in section 5 . Summary and conclusions are provided in section 6 . 2. Model description The simulations were performed with a coupled ocean–sea ice model

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P. S. Brown Jr., J. P. Pandolfo, and S. J. Thoren

Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) have recently become available, whichinclude periods with intermittently light wind speedsand large variations of cloud and rain. It is one suchperiod which is the object of study in the work described here, viz., a 48-h period during Phase III ofGATE from 0000 GMT, 4 September to 0000 GMT,6 September 1974. Tests of the model in these conditions led to somerefinement of the calculation algorithms used for themodel. (described in Section 2). Analysis of the

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Richard Seager, Yochanan Kushnir, and Mark A. Cane

moisture. The increase in fluxes with SST is dominated by the latent heat flux but offsetsignificantly by reduced net longwave radiative cooling of the surface.1. Introduction Variability of the thermohaline circulation has received increasing attention in recent years. Numerousworkers have found that oscillations of the thermohaline circulation can be produced in ocean models in theabsence of variable wind forcing. Multiple equilibriumstates of the circulation have also been found under thesame

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Robrt L. Haney, Wayne S. Shiver, and Kenneth H. Hunt

. Wea. Rev., 103, 465-473.List, R. J., 1963: $mithsonian Meteorological Tables. Smith sonian Institution, Washington, DC, 527 pp.Miller, D. B., and R. G. Feddes~ 1971: Global Atlas of Relative Cloud Cover, 1967-1970. U. S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA/NESS, and U. S. Air Force, Washington, DC, 237 pp.Namias, J., 1965: Macroscopic association between mean monthly sea-surface temperature and the overlying winds. J. Geophys. Res., 70, 2307-2318.--, 1972: Experiments in objectively predicting

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