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Todd D. Ringler and Kerry H. Cook

1. Introduction Orography can force stationary waves by obstructing the atmospheric flow or by creating anomalies in the diabatic heating field. The physical obstruction of the low-level flow is referred to as mechanical forcing and the diabatic heating is termed thermal forcing. Mechanical forcing is strongly linked to the low-level atmospheric flow; if the surface flow changes, the mechanical forcing changes. Since thermal forcing will modify the horizontal flow, it has the potential to

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Graeme L. Stephens and Peter J. Webster

1542~rOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCESVOLUME 36Sensitivity of Radiative Forcing to Variable Cloud and Moisture GRAEME L. STEPHENS AND PETER J. WEBSTERCSIRO Division of Atmospheric Physics, Station Street, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia 3195(Manuscript received 1 November 1978, in final form 27 March 1979) ABSTRACT The influence of cloud and moisture distribution on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere is investigated.' A simple radiative transfer model is

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Ka-Ming Lau and Hock Lim

VOL. 41, NO. 2 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES JANUARY 1984On the Dynamics of Equatorial Forcing of Climate Teleconnections KA-MING LAUGoddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 HOCK LIMlDepartment of M~teorology, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93940(Manuscript received 23 May 1983, in final form 24 August 1983

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Sunwook Park and Xiaoqing Wu

(2004) also examined the relationship between surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing (CF) over an Arctic region using the cloud and radiation dataset from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) program. For middle latitude cases, some research groups have investigated various surface-albedo-related phenomena. Grant et al. (2000) examined the dependence of clear-sky albedo on the SZA by observing the daily variation of surface albedo at Uardry in southeastern Australia. Considering the

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Steven M. Cavallo and Gregory J. Hakim

p are temperature and pressure, respectively, p o = 10 5 Pa is a standard constant, R = 287 J K −1 kg −1 is the dry air gas constant, and c p = 1004 J K −1 kg −1 is the specific heat capacity of dry air at constant pressure; and F is the frictional force vector. As shown by Cavallo and Hakim (2009 , 2010 ), in the case of TPVs, (1) can be reasonably well approximated by neglecting F since it is comparatively small near the tropopause: where is the longwave radiative

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Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, and P. K. Bhartia

load above clouds is important for air quality considerations as some of these aerosols eventually descend into the boundary layer, contributing to the enhancement of pollution levels. Knowledge of the amount and type of aerosol above clouds is also of interest for radiative forcing considerations. The general cooling effect of these aerosol types under clear-sky conditions may turn into a warming effect when located above clouds. Depending on their light absorption capacity, above-cloud aerosols

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Geoffrey Gebbie, Ian Eisenman, Andrew Wittenberg, and Eli Tziperman

at all locations in the tropical Pacific. WWBs have typically been treated as stochastic forcing in numerical models, consistent with the view that ENSO may be described as a damped oscillatory system driven by external noise ( Penland and Sardeshmukh 1995 ; Kleeman and Moore 1997 ; Kessler et al. 1995 ; Battisti and Sarachik 1995 ). While WWBs occur nearly every year, numerous observational studies have shown that they are more frequent prior to and during El Niño events [see Eisenman et al

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Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz, Roy M. Rasmussen, and Terry L. Clark

JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL45, NO. 13On the Dynamics of Haw 'arian Cloud Bands: Island Forcing PIOTR K. SMOLARKIEWICZNational Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado ROY M. RASMUSSENBureau of Reclamation. Denver, Colorado TERRY L. CLARKNational Center for ,dtmospheric ResearCh, Boulder, Colorado(Manuscript received 9 June 1987, in final form 17 November 1987)ABSTRACT This sl ady focuses on

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R. Alan Plumb and Arthur Y. Hou

1790 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 49, NO. 19The Response of a Zonally Symmetric Atmosphere to Subtropical Thermal Forcing: Threshold Behavior R. ACAN P~U~BMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts ARTHUR Y. HOU NASA /Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland(Manuscript received 11 January 1991, in final form 9 December

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A. Buzzi, A. Trevisan, and A. Speranza

15F-1~RU^RY 1984 A. BUZZI, A. TREVISAN AND A. SPERANZA 637Instabilities of a Baroclinic Flow Related to Topographic Forcing A. BuzzI, A. TREVISAN AND A. SPERANZA FISBAT--C.N.R., 40126 Bologna, Italy(Manuscript received 4 March 1983, in final form 3 October 1983)ABSTRACT The presence of bottom topography in a baroclinic flow modifies the properties of the propagating baroclinicunstable modes and allows for the appearance of new

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