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Anastasia Romanou, William B. Rossow, and Shu-Hsien Chou

frequency variability that is explained by the thermal inertia of the ocean. Long scales are then found in the latent and sensible heat fluxes there and are attributed to humidity and temperature differences between the sea and the air above rather than variability due to winds. Low frequency variability of the order of 40–60 days near the Amsterdam Islands in the south Indian Ocean is associated with analogous variability in the zonal winds. However, in some regions, such as the Arabian Sea and the Bay

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Igor V. Polyakov, Tom P. Rippeth, Ilker Fer, Matthew B. Alkire, Till M. Baumann, Eddy C. Carmack, Randi Ingvaldsen, Vladimir V. Ivanov, Markus Janout, Sigrid Lind, Laurie Padman, Andrey V. Pnyushkov, and Robert Rember

floes (e.g., Perovich et al. 2008 ; Toole et al. 2010 ). Moreover, it was hypothesized that the declining sea ice has larger-scale hemispheric impacts on the North Atlantic Oscillation and, in consequence, midlatitude weather patterns (e.g., Francis et al. 2017 ; García-Serrano et al. 2015 ; Kolstad and Screen 2019 ). Heat associated with oceanic currents originating from lower latitudes provides an important, and year-round, source of heat to the Arctic Ocean (e.g., Carmack et al. 2015 ). The

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Yuyu Ren and Guoyu Ren

2000 ; Kim and Baik 2002 ; Chu and Ren 2005 ; Ren et al. 2007 , 2008 ; Zhang et al. 2010 ). It means that the increasing urban heat island (UHI) might have adversely affected the SAT trends at individual stations and should be corrected before being used for regional and global climate change analysis ( Karl et al. 1988 ; Wang et al. 1990 ; Portman 1993 ; Hansen et al. 2001 ; Ren et al. 2008 ; Zhou et al. 2004 ). Many methods have been adopted for the detection of bias in the SAT records

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Vassilis P. Papadopoulos, Yasser Abualnaja, Simon A. Josey, Amy Bower, Dionysios E. Raitsos, Harilaos Kontoyiannis, and Ibrahim Hoteit

jointly with the westward extension of the Siberian high covering with high pressure a broad area from the Azores Islands to eastern Asia. In particular, the anticyclone over Turkey creates the requisite SLP gradient for transferring continental, cold, and dry air masses over the northern part of the Red Sea. The flow of cold and dry winds over the warm Red Sea waters increases the heat loss from the sea surface through the extremely low turbulent flux values. As a consequence, these conditions are

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Edwin K. Schneider, Bohua Huang, and J. Shukla

response that are in equilibrium with andout of equilibrium with the wind stress forcing. In the western equatorial Pacific the SST anomalies are in equilibrium with the wind stress anomalies. In theeastern equatorial Pacific the SST anomalies are not in equilibrium with the wind stress anomalies but rathertend toward equilibrium with the upper-ocean heat content anomalies. The experiment demonstrates that the heat content is not in equilibrium with the wind stress forcing eitheron or near the

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Atsuhiko Isobe and Robert C. Beardsley

SST averaged over the 101-yr dataset. Following the conclusion of Gong et al. (2001) , SST is relatively high (low) over the East China Sea in the positive (negative) AO phase. The SST anomaly in the Kuroshio region along the shelf break (denoted by the 200-m isobath in the East China Sea) is smaller than that on the shelf regardless of the AO phase. Thus, it is concluded that the temperature variation over the East China Sea is not due to the onshore heat transport from the Kuroshio region, but

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Yi Chao and S. G. H. Philander

simulated temperatures along the equatorare too low, especially during periods of light winds inMarch. Offthe equator simulated temperatures are toohigh, but generally are within 1 -C of the observed values. The simulation of interannual sea surface temperature fluctuations along the equator, shown in Fig.3, are remarkably accurate, and the model realisticallyreproduces the succession of El Nifio and La Nifia episodes. Heat storage variations, as shown in Fig. 4 atthe location of the Galapagos Islands

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Zhiwei Zhu and Tim Li

1. Introduction Located in the tropical central North Pacific, Hawaii is famous for its pleasant climate and weather, with constant favorable temperature, mild humidity, and breezy conditions. The nature of the climate is directly attributable to the year-round North Pacific northeast/east trade winds, which represent one of the largest and most consistent circulation systems in the world ( Wyrtki and Meyers 1976 ). The trade winds prevail over the islands throughout the year, for 85%–95% of

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Peter H. Stone and Mao-Sung Yao

by Yanai et al.(1973), Nitta and Esbensen (1974), and Thompsonet al. (1979), respectively. Hantel (1976)comparedresults of the Marshall Island and Bomex experimentswith his own results for the total vertical eddy heat fluxin the tropics and found good agreement. To quoteHantel, this comparison "suggests the conclusion thatthe bulk of the tropical upward eddy heat transport ison the convective scale." Thus, this comparison indicates that the penetrative convection parameterizationis superior to

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M. Rouault, C. J. C. Reason, J. R. E. Lutjeharms, and A. C. M. Beljaars

and the corresponding saturated specific humidity at the sea surface to 16.8 g kg −1 leads to a latent heat flux of 164 W m −2 , again closer to the ECMWF operational and NCEP reanalysis values. Other cruise data (not shown here) at different times of the year (e.g., the ACE cruise in February 1995; Bryden 1995 ) or previous cruises to Marion Island ( Rouault and Lee-Thorp 1997 ) that cross the Agulhas Current and during which flux measurements have been made lead to the same conclusion

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