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molecules of the atmosphere.(2) Scattering by the dust and other impurities in theatmosphere. The depletion by both this and the pre- ceding cause is a t a maximum in the ultra-violet, and diminishes toward the infra-red or long-wave end of thespectrum. (3) Absorption by atmospheric gases, principally by water vapor in well-marked bands in the infra-red, and by ozone in the ultra-violet. The following -causes affect principally the intensity of solar radiation as received by the earth.(4) The distance

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J. Graham Cogley and A. Henderson-Sellers

absorbed radiation.However, since they also absorb radiation emitted fromthe surface at thermal infrared wavelengths they tendto heat the system because their tops, radiating to space,are colder than the underlying surface. The sum ofthese opposed tendencies determines, by its sign,whether changes in cloudiness heat or cool the Earthatmosphere system. It has proved rather difficult toestimate this sum, but recent attempts at estimatingit have served to concentrate attention on 1) the feedbacks that

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David W. Reynolds and Thomas H. Vonder Haar

1604 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUM!~10$ I am in complete agreement with the authors' statement that "... detailed in situ aircraft measurements,simultaneous with satellite measurements in both thevisible and infrared, are needed and should be relatedto particle concentration and geometric thickness."In my opinion, particle sizes and shapes are also important cloud physics parameters that should also

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experiments. The next sectionpresents radiative cooling rates in the clear tropicalatmosphere, which are computed using Sasamori's (1968)radiation model. Sasamori's model is quite suitable foruse in numerical models of the tropical cyclone because ofits relative simplicity and computational economy interms of speed and storage.Because of the small magnitude of the diabatic coolingby the divergence of infrared radiation and the uncer-tainties in the heating and mixing parameterization inthe isentropic

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Jean-Jacques Morcrette

Meteorol ogy Report No. 15, 196 pp. [Available from Max-Planck-Institut fur Meteorologie, Bundesstrasse 55, 2000 Hamburg 13, F.R.G.]Ohring, G., A. Gruber and R. G. Ellingson, 1984: Satellite deter mination of the relationship between total longwave radiation flux and infrared window radiance. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 23, 416-425. Ramanathan, V., 1986: Atmospheric general circulation and its low frequency variance: Radiative influences. Short and Medium Range Numerical Weather

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increased with decreasing ambient temperature; (2) how output varied with angle ofincidence of collimated radiation; (3) that output decreased about 5 percent when receiver was exposed in the verticalplane, but that complete inversion from the horizontal had no significant effect; and (4) that a few water droplets onthe glass envelope did not influence output. In addition, spectral transmission data, from National Bureau of Stand-ards tests, are shown

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I ''r...-October I968 Hugh M. Stone and Syukuro Manabe735COMPARISON AMONG VARIOUS NUMERICAL MODELS DESIGNED FOR COMPUTING INFRARED COOLING HUGH M. STONE and SYUKURO MANABEGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, ESSA, Princeton, N.J.ABSTRACT The scheme of computing the temperature change due to long wave radiation, developed by Manabe andStrickler and incorporated into the general circulation models developed at the Geophysical Fluid DynamicsLaboratory of ESSA, is compared

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JUNE 1938 MONTHLY WIZATHER REVIEW 175 NEW VALUES FOR THE INFRARED ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT OF ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR By WALTER M. ELSASSER \[California Institute of Technology, April l93SI Some t,ime ago the wriber examined those features of atmospheric radiation whic,li ensue from the fact, that the water va,por spectrum is a line spectrum a.nd not a con-tinuous spectrum (1). At, that time i t was not possible to give a qumtitative redetermination of the absprphion, since our spectrosaopic

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temperatures, to verticalmotion. This paper extends Shenk's work to the simul-taneous application of Tadiation in several wavelengthchannels to the estimation of a number of synoptic vari-ables.9. SATELLITE RADIATION AND VERTICAL MOTIONAlmost all recent synoptic work with infrared TIROSradiation has concentrated on the analysis of channel-2radiation intensities, which essentially give the energy inthe 8-12-p window. It has been frequently demonstratedthat these energies are related to the temperature of

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circular at 790 ami. (1463 Inn) andnear-polar in inclination. The scanning radiometer has twochannels, one of which measures the radiation emitted10 / VOf. 100, NO. 1 / Monthly Weather Reviewfrom the earth and its atmosphere in the 10.5-12.5 pmregion. When the radiometer is looking straight down atthe earth's surface, the area instantly viewed is about 4n.mi. (7.4 km) in diameter. The global infrared (IR) meas-urements are stored temporarily on tape onboard thesatellite for later transmission to the

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