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M. Chiriaco, H. Chepfer, V. Noel, A. Delaval, M. Haeffelin, P. Dubuisson, and P. Yang

absorption features of ice at two channels located within the atmospheric IR window. It is worth noting that other methods such as those reported by Minnis et al. (1998) , King et al. (2003) , and Platnick et al (2003) are also quite powerful for inferring the microphysical properties of ice clouds. The upcoming Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission, scheduled to be launched in 2005, will feature a three-channel (8.7, 10.5, 12 μ m) infrared imager (IIR

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Lisa S. Darby, Robert M. Banta, and Roger A. Pielke Sr.

remainder of this section includes a brief discussion on how topography may influence the sea-breeze flow. Section 2 briefly reviews previous lidar observations of the sea breeze and gives an overview of the Land–Sea Breeze Experiment, with an emphasis on the Doppler lidar measurements. Previous modeling sensitivity studies and a description of the model setup used for the simulations presented in this paper are discussed in section 3 . Section 4 contains model results from 2D simulations with

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Martin D. Weissmann, G. J. Mayr, R. M. Banta, and A. Gohm

(e.g., Banta et al. 1990 , 1996 , 1997 , 1999 ), including downslope windstorm investigations in which hydraulic jump–like structures were revealed ( Banta et al. 1990 ; Clark et al. 1994 ) and MAP studies of gap flow in the Wipp Valley ( Flamant et al. 2002 ; Gohm and Mayr 2004 ; Gohm et al. 2004 ). The present study makes use of the whole dataset of the 2 through 3 October 1999 foehn event. In addition to the lidar observations, in situ measurements from the NOAA P-3 aircraft along Wipp

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Laurent Sauvage, Pierre H. Flamant, Hélène Chepfer, Gérard Brogniez, Vincent Trouillet, Jacques Pelon, and Franck Albers

Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 118, No. 11, 1990 and the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 52, No. 23, 1995), and the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE’89) in 1989 ( Raschke et al. 1990 ). During the field campaigns in situ probes, passive (i.e., radiometers) and active (i.e., lidars, radars) remote sensors, either airborne or ground based, have been deployed to document different cirrus cloud layers at the mesoscale while satellite data were provided with synoptic-scale observations

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Anders A. Jensen, James O. Pinto, Sean C. C. Bailey, Ryan A. Sobash, Gijs de Boer, Adam L. Houston, Phillip B. Chilson, Tyler Bell, Glen Romine, Suzanne W. Smith, Dale A. Lawrence, Cory Dixon, Julie K. Lundquist, Jamey D. Jacob, Jack Elston, Sean Waugh, and Matthias Steiner

relationship between pitch required to maintain profile location and drag associated with the changing form factor of the tilting aircraft. They also showed that correlations between UAS wind direction and those obtained with radiosonde and the CLAMPS lidar where much lower than those found for wind speed. Despite these issues, Barbieri et al. (2019) found that observations obtained by a range of UAS deployed during LAPSE-RATE agreed remarkably well (particularly for temperature) with wind measurements

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Kenneth Sassen and Steven K. Krueger

. REFERENCESFraser, A. B., and C. F. Bohren, 1992: Is virga rain that evaporates before reaching the ground? Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 1565-1571.Krueger, S. K., and R. M. Wakimoto, 1985: Numerical simulationof dry microbursts. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Severe Local Storms.Indianapolis, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 163-166.Sassen, K., 1977: Lidar observations of high plains thunderstorm precipitation. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1444-1457.--, 1991: The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: A review and current

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Pieter Groenemeijer, Christian Barthlott, Ulrich Corsmeier, Jan Handwerker, Martin Kohler, Christoph Kottmeier, Holger Mahlke, Andreas Wieser, Andreas Behrendt, Sandip Pal, Marcus Radlach, Volker Wulfmeyer, and Jörg Trentmann

al. 1998 ; Marsham et al. 2007 ). Other processes include the interaction of convective up- and downdrafts with the flow in the mid- and upper troposphere, and with stable, dry layers or lids ( Morcrette et al. 2007 ). A major part of this case study concerns yet another interaction, namely, that which resulted in a dry and warm downdraft that has positive thermal buoyancy. It formed as a response to the upward mass flux associated with the convective updrafts. Observations of such compensatory

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Paul M. Markowski, Nathan T. Lis, David D. Turner, Temple R. Lee, and Michael S. Buban

of vertical wind profiles within the surface layer, both near and within convective storms, and their departures from MOST. We analyze data obtained from a Doppler lidar and instrumented towers deployed during the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment–Southeast (VORTEX-SE) field campaign during the spring of 2017. We are in desperate need of near-surface wind observations—and knowledge of their departures from MOST—in order to assess the credibility of present

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M. Kästner, K. T. Kriebel, R. Meerkötter, W. Renger, G. H. Ruppersberg, and P. Wendling

, R. G., S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, Ch. Ham, and W. T. Grandy Jr., 1990: Backscatter and extinction in water clouds. J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6787-6796.Plass, G. N., G. W. Kattawar, and F. E. Catchings, 1973: Matrix operator-theory of radiative transfer. Appl. Opt., 12, 314-329.Platt, C. M. R., D. W. Reynolds, and N. L. Abshire, 1980: Satellite and lidar observations of the albedo, emittance and optical depth of cirrus compared to model calculations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 195-204.Pollinger

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F. Ravetta and G. Ancellet

distributions of long-lived trace gases, ozone, and light hydrocarbons that transport and mixing probably exist in a COL system without specifying mechanisms responsible for such transport. To better understand these mechanisms, Price and Vaughan (1993) followed the time evolution of ozone in a COL using satellite observations, but limited vertical resolution of these data and difficulty accounting for the effect of clouds made interpretation difficult. More recently, ground-based lidar observations with

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