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Leo Pio D’Adderio, Gianfranco Vulpiani, Federico Porcù, Ali Tokay, and Robert Meneghini

footprints used in the analysis are only those reporting liquid precipitation (as identified by DPR) below the BB, when it is clearly detected, or the freezing level both reported as outputs by DPR/DPR–GMI algorithm. In addition, the samples have been divided according to the surface type (land and sea) as classified by the DPR. b. DPC ground radars properties The DPC currently manages seven C-band and two X-band radar systems, all with dual-polarization capabilities. For this work, two C-band radars

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Marika Koukoula, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Jonilda Kushta, Nikolaos S. Bartsotas, George Kallos, and Emmanouil N. Anagnostou

during the spring. The nearby Mediterranean Sea acts as an energy and moisture source for the lower layers of the atmosphere, leading to frequent flood-inducing storm events in the region. Moreover, the complex terrain of the wider area surrounded by the Alps, Pyrenees, and Massif Central Mountains contributes to convection triggering and channels the low-level flows, enhancing convective instability. The average depth in the region does not exceed 55 cm ( Anquetin et al. 2009 ), and the average

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Nikolaos S. Bartsotas, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Stavros Solomos, and George Kallos

synoptic conditions favor the transfer of humid air masses from the Mediterranean Sea, the effect of orographic enhancement on precipitation often results in large amounts of rainfall that accumulate within a short timeframe over small basins with short response times to precipitation. A number of international research programs and field campaigns have focused on the study and analysis of hydrometeorological extremes in the mountainous areas, including the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP; Bougeault

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Philippe Lucas-Picher, Philippe Riboust, Samuel Somot, and René Laprise

) . Climate Dyn. , 40 , 1415 – 1433 , doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1387-z . Herrmann, M. J. , and Somot S. , 2008 : Relevance of ERA40 dynamical downscaling for modeling deep convection in the Mediterranean Sea . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L04607 , doi: 10.1029/2007GL032442 . Herrmann, M. J. , Somot S. , Calmanti S. , Dubois C. , and Sevault F. , 2011 : Representation of spatial and temporal variability of daily wind speed and of intense wind events over the Mediterranean Sea using

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Freddie S. Mpelasoka and Francis H. S. Chiew

the northeast coast, Gulf of Carpentaria, and Timor Sea drainage basins ( Table 2b ); and 3) southwest western Australia (SWWA), which covers the southwest coast drainage basin ( Table 2c ). These three key regions of Australia have very different climates, broadly classified as “temperate” and “semiarid” in SEA, “tropical” in NA, and “temperate Mediterranean” in SWWA; the rainfall and runoff results for these regions will be discussed subsequently. The plots in Fig. 5 indicate that the large

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Marc Berenguer, Carles Corral, Rafael Sánchez-Diezma, and Daniel Sempere-Torres

region has a typical Mediterranean climate: it is affected by intense rainfall events that frequently lead to important floods. In this area, at the end of summer, mountain ranges near the coast act as natural barriers causing the updraft of warm wet air from the sea, and this encourages the generation of local intense convective storms. However, stratiform systems (with high spatial and temporal extensions) are also common, especially in winter and spring. The validation was carried out with six

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Liping Deng, Matthew F. McCabe, Georgiy Stenchikov, Jason P. Evans, and Paul A. Kucera

-flood events over the last decade. The surface topography in the area around Jeddah increases from west to east, with high mountains on the eastern side. These mountains act as a natural barrier to passing convective storms, resulting in large rainfall bursts that occur in a short time period and flow from the foothills of these slopes directly into the city. The factors that influence such convective systems include cyclone development over the Mediterranean and anticyclone development over the Arabian

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Ayman Suleiman, Jawad Al-Bakri, Mohammad Duqqah, and Rich Crago

Suleiman 2004 ). Mediterranean: restricted to the highlands of Jordan, with altitudes ranging from 700 to 1750 m above mean sea level and mean annual rainfall ranging from 300 to 600 mm. This region supports the best natural vegetation in Jordan including forest stands. In addition to natural vegetation, rainfed cultivation of wheat and other field crops, summer crops, and orchards is practiced. Irano–Turanian (also known as steppe ): surrounds the Mediterranean region from all sides except

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Bart van den Hurk, Janneke Ettema, and Pedro Viterbo

Seneviratne et al. (2004) , who analyzed the annual cycle of terrestrial water storage in ERA-40 over the Mississippi River basin. They observed a strong damping of this annual cycle and too-high summertime soil moisture content owing to the soil moisture data assimilation. This behavior is noted for the locations spread around the midlatitude European domain away from the Mediterranean area (Spain and Italy). Douville et al. (2000) hint at an overestimation of springtime canopy transpiration owing to

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Álvaro González-Reyes, James McPhee, Duncan A. Christie, Carlos Le Quesne, Paul Szejner, Mariano H. Masiokas, Ricardo Villalba, Ariel A. Muñoz, and Sebastián Crespo

1. Introduction The Andes is the largest mountain chain in the Southern Hemisphere, acting as a regional “water tower” for many South American countries from the tropics to the southern tip of the continent (8°N–55°S). The Mediterranean Andes region (MA; 30°–37°S) is located in the transition between two major macroclimate regions in South America, namely, the subtropical desert Andes to the north and the wet temperate Andes to the south ( Lliboutry 1998 ). Several studies in the region have

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