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Jun Li, Christopher C. Schmidt, James P. Nelson III, Timothy J. Schmit, and W. Paul Menzel

their TOVS ozone retrievals with TOMS total ozone estimates and obtained agreement to within 10% rms for global-gridded TOVS measurements. Since April 1994, the new generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES; Menzel and Purdom 1994 ) Sounders have provided higher spatial and temporal resolution radiance measurements for deriving atmospheric parameters such as temperature and moisture ( Menzel et al. 1998 ). Table 1 lists the GOES-8 Sounder noise performance. NEDR is

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P. S. Anderson

) rather than to anabsolute measure of humidity, such as vapor pressure or mixing ratio, over a wide temperature range. A simplemechanism based on the adhesion of surface water to polarized solids is presented that explains many of theproperties of these sensors.1. Introduction Many solid-state moisture sensors respond tochanges in relative, rather than absolute, humidity.That is, they measure the ratio of the air moisture content to the moisture content of saturated air at the sametemperature

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D. M. Le Vine, M. Kao, R. W. Garvine, and T. Sanders

). The first images were reported in 1990 ( Le Vine et al. 1990 ) and success in the measurement of soil moisture (which is measured in the same portion of the microwave spectrum as salinity) was demonstrated in a series of experiments at the United States Department of Agriculture’s research watersheds in Arizona and Oklahoma ( Le Vine et al. 1994 ; Jackson et al. 1995 ; Jackson et al. 1993 ). During this same period experiments were begun to evaluate the potential of applying this new technology

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Frédéric Fabry, Chuck Frush, Isztar Zawadzki, and Alamelu Kilambi

1. Concept The index of refraction has traditionally been seen in radar meteorology as the quantity whose unusual vertical structure may cause anomalous propagation of radar waves. In parallel, it has long been recognized that the index of refraction is strongly related to atmospheric parameters such as pressure, temperature, and moisture ( Bean and Dutton 1968 , and references therein). The link between index of refraction and meteorological parameters makes it an interesting quantity to

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Daniel E. Wolfe and Seth I. Gutman

1. Introduction Water vapor is one of the most important constituents of the atmosphere since it contributes to the transport of moisture and latent heat. The measurement of atmospheric water vapor is vital for weather and climate research as well as operational weather forecasting. An important goal in modern weather prediction is to improve the accuracy of short-term cloud and precipitation forecasts, but our ability to do so is limited by the lack of timely water vapor data. At approximately

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Yong-Keun Lee, Zhenglong Li, Jun Li, and Timothy J. Schmit

, temperature/moisture profiles, total precipitable water (TPW), stability indices, cloud-top pressure, and water vapor tracked winds ( Velden et al. 1997 ; Schmit et al. 2002 ; Jin et al. 2008 ; Li et al. 2008 , 2009 ). The GOES sounder products have been shown useful for nowcasting and forecasting of weather events ( Menzel et al. 1998 ; Schrab 1998 ; Li et al. 2008 , 2009 ) and monitoring temperature and moisture changes in the preconvective atmospheric environment ( Schmit et al. 2002 ). The

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Ken Dixon, Clifford F. Mass, Gregory J. Hakim, and Robert H. Holzworth

scale. A second group of studies assimilated lightning into higher-resolution, but not convection-permitting, regional models (Δ x = 10 km). In Papadopoulos et al. (2005) , model humidity profiles were nudged toward humidity profiles derived from observed soundings when lightning occurred. Although the technique produced improved convective precipitation forecasts during the assimilation period and the subsequent 12-h forecasts, it made use of regionally and seasonally specific moisture profiles

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George R. Diak

cloud-free period close to the time of themicrowave measurements. Eyre (1990) presented amethod using simulated data for the AMSU and HIRS1995 American Meteorological SocietyAUGUST 1995 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 961to retrieve simultaneously the temperature and moisture structure of the atmosphere and column cloudwater amounts. In this method, column cloud wateris evaluated using brightness temperature signals

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Stuart Bradley and Vicky Hipkin

extended to sound, with H 2 O as a trace gas. However, absorption does vary also with temperature, with a dependence that varies with frequency. The dependence of absorption on humidity, temperature, and frequency is well known ( Neff 1975 ). There is a strong motivation to obtain profiles of temperature and humidity using a sodar, since this would result in a single unit obtaining profiles of all the most important quantities (wind, turbulence, temperature, and moisture) for boundary layer

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Nathan Magee, Kayla Spector, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Corey Tong, and John Beatty

; Scheuer et al. 2010 ). The harsh conditions have likewise restricted experimental measurements to a relatively sparse set (e.g., Shaw et al. 2000 ; Fukuta and Gramada 2003 ; Bailey and Hallett 2004 ; Magee et al. 2006 ). At temperatures between 200 and 240 K, measurements of temperature are still quite straightforward, but it becomes increasingly difficult to measure trace moisture with precision ( Funke et al. 2003 ; Bell et al. 2004 ; Sayres et al. 2009 ; Jensen et al. 2009 ). Furthermore, it

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