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Janice L. Bytheway, Mimi Hughes, Kelly Mahoney, and Rob Cifelli

a few kilometers has not yet been explored, possibly because the uncertainties at lower resolutions and longer accumulation periods are known to be large. Operational entities in this region such as the NWS and California Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC) rely heavily on gauge-based QPE adjusted for orographic effects, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM; Daly et al. 1994 , 2017 ) for forecast evaluation on scales from several hours to daily

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Eun-Pa Lim and Ian Simmonds

the vertical shear is strong enough to dominate the β effect (BP > 1), the vertical and horizontal growth of a disturbance can be large. The maximum Eady growth rate is also widely used as a measure of baroclinicity. Although Eady’s model ignores the effects of the earth’s sphericity and makes the assumption of a rigid upper boundary, previous studies have shown that the basic dynamics of baroclinic instability and the predictions of the features of baroclinic waves are well represented by Eady

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Christopher Potter

1. Introduction The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) was established by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 and covers 19 million acres (77 000 km 2 ) in northeast Alaska. Proponents of development in the ANWR view its 1.6 million acre (6475 km 2 ) coastal plain as a promising onshore oil reserve ( Comay et al. 2018 ). Nonetheless, wildlife habitats in the ANWR are vulnerable to long-lasting effects from any disturbance, in part because short growing seasons in the

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Daran L. Rife, James O. Pinto, Andrew J. Monaghan, Christopher A. Davis, and John R. Hannan

-area mesoscale model. Part II: Effects of data assimilation within the planetary boundary layer. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 119 , 734 – 754 . Stensrud , D. J. , 1996 : Importance of low-level jets to climate: A review. J. Climate , 9 , 1698 – 1711 . Todd , M. C. , R. Washington , S. Raghavan , G. Lizcano , and P. Knippertz , 2008 : Regional model simulations of the Bodélé low-level jet of northern Chad during the Bodele Dust Experiment (BoDEx 2005). J. Climate , 21 , 995 – 1012 . Tuttle

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Zydi Teqja, Albert Kopali, Zamir Libohova, and Phillip R. Owens

-scale physiographic characteristics do influence regional spatial patterns of temperature. For example, Dobrowski et al. (2009) found that between 70% and 80% of the variability in temperature patterns in the Lake Tahoe region in the United States was explained by regional patterns and the remaining percentage by landscape-scale physiographic characteristics. Interestingly, the RMSE associated with the difference between regional- and local-landscape-driven temperature patterns found by Dobrowski et al. (2009

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Haiyan Jiang and Edward J. Zipser

fraction of TC rain in different regions implies that the contribution of TC rain to total precipitation varies across the global oceans. Since existing studies are mostly regional, questions remain concerning the global amount that TCs contribute to the total rainfall, how these contributions are different for different global TC basins, and how TC rainfall patterns are distributed geographically, seasonally, and interannually. In addition, above-mentioned studies use either rain gauge observations or

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John H. Seinfeld, Gregory R. Carmichael, Richard Arimoto, William C. Conant, Frederick J. Brechtel, Timothy S. Bates, Thomas A. Cahill, Antony D. Clarke, Sarah J. Doherty, Piotr J. Flatau, Barry J. Huebert, Jiyoung Kim, Krzysztof M. Markowicz, Patricia K. Quinn, Lynn M. Russell, Philip B. Russell, Atsushi Shimizu, Yohei Shinozuka, Chul H. Song, Youhua Tang, Itsushi Uno, Andrew M. Vogelmann, Rodney J. Weber, Jung-Hun Woo, and Xiao Y. Zhang

Although continental-scale plumes of Asian dust and pollution reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface and perturb the chemistry of the atmosphere, our ability to quantify these effects has been limited by a lack of critical observations, particularly of layers above the surface. Comprehensive surface, airborne, shipboard, and satellite measurements of Asian aerosol chemical composition, size, optical properties, and radiative impacts were performed during the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) study. Measurements within a massive Chinese dust storm at numerous widely spaced sampling locations revealed the highly complex structure of the atmosphere, in which layers of dust, urban pollution, and biomass- burning smoke may be transported long distances as distinct entities or mixed together. The data allow a first-time assessment of the regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of a continental-scale mixture of dust and pollution. Our results show that radiative flux reductions during such episodes are sufficient to cause regional climate change.

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Ja-Young Hong and Joong-Bae Ahn

future anthropogenic climate change, representative concentration pathways (RCPs) ( Meinshausen et al. 2011 ) based on phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Using the CMIP5 models, Chen and Sun (2013) suggested that, in the RCP4.5 scenario, EA summer precipitation and its intensity might increase in the near (2016–35) and long-term (2080–99) future. Using the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios and the Regional Climate Model, version 4, Oh et al. (2014) proposed that the EA summer

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Masafumi Hirose, Yukari N. Takayabu, Atsushi Hamada, Shoichi Shige, and Munehisa K. Yamamoto

1. Introduction Geographic features significantly characterize the spatial pattern of local precipitation (e.g., Houze 2012 ; Roe 2005 ). Finescale spatial deviations in precipitation have been investigated by numerous researchers for specific domains according to regional needs (e.g., Isotta et al. 2014 ). The downscaling of observations and model simulations is required by society (e.g., Duan et al. 2015 ; Fang et al. 2013 ; Ménégoz et al. 2013 ; Park 2013 ; Qian 2008 ; Shi and Song

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Valérie Dulière, Yongxin Zhang, and Eric P. Salathé Jr.

over the grid box. Local terrain and mesoscale effects can produce unresolved heterogeneity within a grid cell. For coarse-resolution models, many stations may be combined, but for regional models the grid spacing is generally finer than the station network. One alternative would be to aggregate the regional model grid cells to coarser resolution, on the order of 100 km, and compare the model against the average over many stations. This approach would evaluate the regional climate simulations

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