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Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas and Sumant Nigam

1. Introduction The transboundary Mekong River winds its way through six countries, with a basin larger than 700 000 km 2 and with more than 60 million people living in it. The Mekong is the longest river in the Indochina Peninsula, with the greater Mekong being one of the most biodiverse habitats in the world, second only to the Amazon in fish biodiversity ( WWF 2017 ). The Mekong basin is shared by six countries: Thailand, Laos, China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Myanmar, listed in order of their

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F. M. Ralph, S. F. Iacobellis, P. J. Neiman, J. M. Cordeira, J. R. Spackman, D. E. Waliser, G. A. Wick, A. B. White, and C. Fairall

1. Introduction The global atmospheric water budget is a subject of ongoing research. Recent evaluations of global climate model representations of precipitation, evaporation, and moisture transport compared to observed river discharges into oceans ( Trenberth et al. 2011 ) concluded that “their differences reveal outstanding issues with atmospheric models and their biases.” One reason for their differences is that horizontal water vapor transport in climate models is sensitive to grid size (e

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Vincent Häfliger, Eric Martin, Aaron Boone, Florence Habets, Cédric H. David, Pierre-A. Garambois, Hélène Roux, Sophie Ricci, Lucie Berthon, Anthony Thévenin, and Sylvain Biancamaria

1. Introduction Remote sensing from spaceborne platforms is increasingly used for the monitoring of components of the hydrological cycle, including river discharge ( Santos da Silva et al. 2010 ). The surface soil moisture can be observed by the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellites ( Pierdicca et al. 2013 ; Kerr et al. 2010 ; Flores et al. 2012 ). The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite

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Julian C. Brimelow and Gerhard W. Reuter

1. Introduction The Mackenzie River basin (MRB) is one of the world’s largest high-latitude river basins and covers an area of approximately 1.8 million km 2 ( Fig. 1 ). In this paper, we focus our attention on three extreme rainfall events (with rainfall exceeding 100 mm) that occurred over the southern MRB between 1993 and 2001: 22–23 June 1993, 18–19 June 1996, and 28–29 July 2001. The southern MRB encompasses the Peace River and Athabasca River basins, and covers an area of approximately

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Qiudong Zhao, Shiqiang Zhang, Yong Jian Ding, Jian Wang, Haidong Han, Junli Xu, Chuancheng Zhao, Wanqin Guo, and Donghui Shangguan

ability to represent glacier melt and runoff production for a glacierized catchment. In this paper, based on the combination of observed data and simulations, we analyze glacier variation and the response of hydrological processes in a typical glacierized catchment of the central Tian Shan during recent decades. We then project the potential change of the response of the hydrologic processes to future climate scenarios. 2. Description of study area The study area of the Kunma Like River basin (one of

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Yu Zhang and James A. Smith

1. Introduction The Menomonee River, which drains much of the Milwaukee metropolitan region ( Fig. 1 ), experienced record flooding 21 June 1997 and 6 August 1998. Sample flood frequency distributions ( Fig. 2 ) for the Menomonee River at Wauwautosa [319 km 2 ; U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gauge number 04087120] and its tributaries Underwood Creek (47 km 2 ; USGS gauge number 04087088) and the Menomonee River at Menomonee Falls (90 km 2 ; USGS gauge number 04087030) illustrate the magnitudes

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Daqing Yang, Baisheng Ye, and Alexander Shiklomanov

1. Introduction Discharge from northern-flowing rivers is the primary freshwater source to the Arctic Ocean. Studies show that both the amount and the timing of freshwater inflow to the ocean systems are important to ocean circulation, salinity, and sea ice dynamics ( Aagaard and Carmack 1989 ; Macdonald 2000 ; Peterson et al. 2002 ). Climate over Arctic regions has experienced significant changes during the past few decades. For instance, climate changes over Siberian regions include

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Gerhard Smiatek and Harald Kunstmann

1. Introduction The Jordan River, flowing from the Mount Hermon area to the Dead Sea, is the most important freshwater system in the region, and its water is almost fully used by withdrawal from Lake Kinneret, fed to a large extent from the upper Jordan River (UJR) basin. As the countries in the eastern Mediterranean (EM) region show high rates of growth of population and urbanization, the current scarcity of water is expected to worsen in the future, with the additional pressure on the water

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Yi Xi, Shushi Peng, Philippe Ciais, Matthieu Guimberteau, Yue Li, Shilong Piao, Xuhui Wang, Jan Polcher, Jiashuo Yu, Xuanze Zhang, Feng Zhou, Yan Bo, Catherine Ottle, and Zun Yin

al. 2000 ; Xiong et al. 2010 ). Meeting the demand for water for agricultural, domestic, and industrial purposes from limited water resources is likely to be a challenge for the future. In China, river flow makes up ~80% of water consumption and is thus the main water source for human society. Especially in the context of climate change, this creates an urgent need to quantify and understand the factors that contribute to changes in river flow and allow water planning and management of China to

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Michael G. Bosilovich and Jiun-Dar Chern

. Brubaker et al. (2001) showed the long-term analysis of evaporative sources for the Mississippi River basin (MRB). Variations of evaporative oceanic sources can affect the recycling of precipitation. In addition, over 36 years some significant trends in sources of water for the basin were identified. Second, Bosilovich et al. (2005) evaluated climate atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations for a 50-yr duration. The AGCMs show global increasing trends of precipitation, but the trend

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