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greatdifferences in density when temperature is taken into consideration, as from these latter it is possible to calcu- late dvnamicnlly the differences of current flow. @)The ordinary surface net and the full-speed tow net were used in obtaining samples of plankton a t the surface and a t depths down to 30 fathoms or more for use in studying the distribution of these minute forms of lant life in connection with the tem erature and salinity.1913 reference was made to certain samples which showed strongly

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FRITZ VON KERNER

its basis, the hiown rainfall data for the Indian Ocean and the North Atlantic. These were arranged according to latitude, together with the surface salinity of the ocean. By rearranging the data, the rainfall values were plotted ainst the surface salinity of the ocean. Knowm the s i n i t y of the surface of other oceans, it is reasonab gi e to assume that the relation between salt content and rain- fall hold there also, thus giving a basis for computing the total rainfall for the entire water

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W. H. DINES

244 MONTHLY WEAwater, attention is directed to the references given in the footnotes which describe an apparatus which will give acontinuous record of seewater salinity from a moving vessel. This instrument in conjunction with an instru- ment to record temperature, which has been constructed, would give the three most important physical variables of sea water, namely, temperature, salinity, and densit .show monthly and early variations of these physicalSuch records taken regularly over the same

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its basis, the hiown rainfall data for the Indian Ocean and the North Atlantic. These were arranged according to latitude, together with the surface salinity of the ocean. By rearranging the data, the rainfall values were plotted ainst the surface salinity of the ocean. Knowm the s i n i t y of the surface of other oceans, it is reasonab gi e to assume that the relation between salt content and rain- fall hold there also, thus giving a basis for computing the total rainfall for the entire water

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...................... Randolph, Kans. ............... Ogden. Kans .................... Manhattan. Kans ............... Wamego, Kans .................. Topeka, ham ................... Lwompton, Kans-. ............. Lawrence, Kans. ................ Banner Springs, Kans ........... Oallatin, Mo .................... Chillicothe, Mo ____ -. - ____ - - - ___ Brunswick, Mo. ................ Saline: Tkcott, Kans ................ Ent.erbrise, Kans.. .............. Smoky Hill: Republican: Little Blue: Big Blue: BIui Rapids. Gans

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its basis, the hiown rainfall data for the Indian Ocean and the North Atlantic. These were arranged according to latitude, together with the surface salinity of the ocean. By rearranging the data, the rainfall values were plotted ainst the surface salinity of the ocean. Knowm the s i n i t y of the surface of other oceans, it is reasonab gi e to assume that the relation between salt content and rain- fall hold there also, thus giving a basis for computing the total rainfall for the entire water

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greatdifferences in density when temperature is taken into consideration, as from these latter it is possible to calcu- late dvnamicnlly the differences of current flow. @)The ordinary surface net and the full-speed tow net were used in obtaining samples of plankton a t the surface and a t depths down to 30 fathoms or more for use in studying the distribution of these minute forms of lant life in connection with the tem erature and salinity.1913 reference was made to certain samples which showed strongly

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Geert Jan van Oldenborgh

the equator, and a vertical resolution of 25 m in the upper ocean. It traces the evolution of temperature T ; salinity S ; horizontal velocities u, υ ; and sea level ζ. This ocean model is forced with daily wind stress ( τ x , τ y ) and heat flux Q from the ECMWF analysis, which in turn uses the excellent system of buoys ( McPhaden et al. 1998 ) that observed this El Niño. Evaporation and precipitation are only implemented as a relaxation to climatological surface salinity. The initial

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S. D. FLORA

. ................................................. Lyon and Woodson.. ......................................Nemnha ....................................................DECEMBER, 19151881.Sept. 2SPpt. 2 Sept. 2Sapt. 2!Sept. aTABLE 2.-Lia6 oftodmca reporkdin Xiama,v, 1859-1883.(From the report of b u t . John P. Flnley, U. S. Signal Corps.]Stofford and Rice ........................................... Saline.. .................................................... Reno. ...................................................... Clay

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Camille Marini, Iuliia Polkova, Armin Köhl, and Detlef Stammer

, the MPI-ESM-LR setup was described in detail by Giorgetta et al. (2013) . The performance of decadal hindcasts in similar setup was discussed before by Müller et al. (2012) who demonstrated improved surface temperature skill from initialization experiments (MPI-ESM-LR was initialized with temperature and salinity anomalies from the NOAA/NCEP forced run) relative to the uninitialized run. Later, Pohlmann et al. (2013) showed that further improved skill can be established that is related to the

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