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R. David Baker, Barry H. Lynn, Aaron Boone, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Joanne Simpson

–environment interaction, cloud mergers, air–sea interaction, cloud–radiation interaction, and trace gas transport (e.g., Simpson and Tao 1993 ). The model includes solar and infrared radiative transfer processes, a Kessler two-category liquid water scheme, and three-category ice microphysics schemes ( Lin et al. 1983 ; Rutledge and Hobbs 1984 ). The Rutledge–Hobbs microphysics scheme is utilized in this study given the tropical characteristics of the sounding ( Fig. 1 ). GCE is an active participant in the Global

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

altered by a warming climate at higher latitudes (e.g., Burnett et al. 2003 ; Kunkel et al. 2009 ; Notaro et al. 2014 ). Recent research using model output has also posited that future Arctic precipitation may substantially increase, largely driven by local surface evaporation effects—the prime mechanism causing overwater shallow snowfall—due to diminished sea ice coverage ( Bintanja and Selten 2014 ). The CloudSat data record serves as a valuable reference to monitor future changes in shallow

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Junchao Shi, Massimo Menenti, and Roderik Lindenbergh

Sensing Symp., 2003. Vol. 3, Toulouse, France, IEEE, 1534 – 1536 . Abshire, J. , Sun X. , Riris H. , Sirota J. , McGarry J. , Palm S. , Yi D. , and Liiva P. , 2005 : Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: On-orbit measurement performance . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32 , L21S02, doi:10.1029/2005GL024028. Andreas, E. L , 1987 : A theory for the scalar roughness and the scalar transfer coefficients over snow and sea ice . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 38 , 159

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Wayne R. Rouse, Peter D. Blanken, Normand Bussières, Anne E. Walker, Claire J. Oswald, William M. Schertzer, and Christopher Spence

) , indicating that Lake Superior’s surface waters are warming faster than regional air temperatures because of decreases in the length of the ice-covered season. On a larger scale, a similar feedback relationship has been postulated for early ice breakup in the polar sea ( Serreze and Francis 2006 ). 5. Conclusions In spite of the facts that both Great Slave Lake (GSL) and Great Bear Lake (GBL) are large, cold, and deep and have similar regional climates, the hypothesis that GSL and GBL will exhibit similar

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Hotaek Park, Yasuhiro Yoshikawa, Daqing Yang, and Kazuhiro Oshima

the impact of T a on T w , likely resulting in T w changes diverging from the warming trend of T a . From that perspective, the physical process–based model is useful for investigating T w changes under climate change scenarios. The Arctic rivers provide freshwater to the Arctic Ocean, which carries with it a heat supply that impacts seasonal sea ice retreat and the warming of sea shelf waters ( Janout et al. 2016 ). A considerable area of the shelf is underlain by submerged permafrost

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Toshi Matsui, Brenda Dolan, Takamichi Iguchi, Steven A. Rutledge, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Stephen Lang

1. Introduction It is well known that continental deep convection is more vigorous than maritime convection ( Williams and Stanfill 2002 ; Williams et al. 2004 ). Continental convection is characterized by stronger vertical velocities and wider convective cores ( Lucas et al. 1994 ). Due to intense updraft velocities, continental convection tends to loft more supercooled water that enhances ice formation ( Williams et al. 2005 ). Consequently, satellite observations show more frequent

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Stephen J. Déry and M. K. Yau

-off 500-hPa low with central geopotential height reaching 468 dam at 1200 UTC 17 November 1996 was associated with the strong surface cyclone over the frozen Arctic Ocean. A sample of the infrared satellite imagery obtained for the case study reveals the generally clear conditions that prevailed during the entire event in the vicinity of TVC. Figure 4 confirms the overwhelming presence of sea ice interspersed with leads in the Beaufort Sea. Regions north of the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, however, appear

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G. W. K. Moore and Gerald Holdsworth

1994 ; Lackmann et al. 1998 ; Smirnov and Moore 2001 ). Much of this moisture rains out on the upwind side of the Western Cordillera leaving only upper-level moisture available for transport into northwestern North America ( Asuma et al. 1998 ; Lackmann et al. 1998 ; Smirnov and Moore 1999 ). The extreme height of Mount Logan [5959 m above sea level (ASL)] is such that it intercepts much of this upper-level moisture ( Moore et al. 2003 ). An ice core containing a 300-yr record of annual snow

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Raju Attada, Hari Prasad Dasari, Ravi Kumar Kunchala, Sabique Langodan, Kondapalli Niranjan Kumar, Omar Knio, and Ibrahim Hoteit

levels. The chosen model domain extends over 30°W–130°E in the zonal direction and 30°S–45°N in the meridional direction and is used to resolve the large-scale atmospheric features and internal dynamics of the system (e.g., Wang et al. 2004 ; Lucas-Picher et al. 2011 ; Raju et al. 2015a , b ). The initial and 6-hourly boundary conditions are taken from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERAI) data available at a resolution of 0.75°. Sea surface temperature

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Hengchun Ye, Steve Ladochy, Daqing Yang, Tingjun Zhang, Xuebin Zhang, and Mark Ellison

1. Introduction Three major rivers in Siberia, Russia—the Ob, Yenisei, and Lena—together contribute more than 45% of the total freshwater inflow to the Arctic Ocean ( Shiklomanov et al. 2000 ; Prowse and Flegg 2000 ). The variability of these rivers' discharges significantly affects salinity and sea ice formation and hence global ocean circulation and climate ( Aagaard and Carmack 1989 ). The dynamics of discharge also control the timing and magnitude of flooding and sediment distribution over

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