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Tomomichi Ogata, Motoki Nagura, and Yukio Masumoto

mechanism responsible for generation of the subsurface upward motion in the equatorial IO, particularly focusing on impacts of intraseasonal equatorial waves onto the mean condition. Previous studies indicate various intraseasonal oceanic variability to occur in the equatorial IO with significant amplitude, including ocean responses to atmospheric intraseasonal disturbances such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (e.g., Han et al. 2001 ), meridional current variability associated with the mixed Rossby

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Sophia E. Brumer, Christopher J. Zappa, Ian M. Brooks, Hitoshi Tamura, Scott M. Brown, Byron W. Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, and Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen

1. Introduction Whitecaps are the surface signature of air-entraining breaking waves consisting of subsurface bubble clouds and surface foam patches. They have been studied extensively since the late 1960s because of the role of bubbles in the air–sea exchange of gases, and the production of sea spray aerosols. They form under wind speeds as low as 3 m s −1 ( Hanson and Phillips 1999 ; Monahan and O’Muircheartaigh 1986 ) and have been estimated to cover, on average, 1%–4% of the global oceans

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Robert H. Weisberg and Thomas J. Weingartner

NOVEMBER 1988 ROBERT H. WEISBERG AND THOMAS J. WEINGARTNER 1641Instability Waves in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean ROBERT H. WEISBERG AND THOMAS J. WEINGARTNERDepartment of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Florida(Manuscript received 28 December 1987, in final form 17 May 1988) ABSTRACT Evidence is presented for the generation of planetary waves by barotropic

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Riccardo Farneti

approaches have been used and different results, sometimes in disagreement, have been found. Nevertheless, there are a few key findings that can be pointed out. There is some evidence that the ocean can interact through feedback mechanisms (e.g., Latif and Barnett 1994 , 1996 ; Barsugli and Battisti 1998 ; Pierce et al. 2001 ; Hogg et al. 2006 ; Kravtsov et al. 2006 ), and it has also been suggested that oceanic Rossby waves play a major role in the coupling physics (e.g., Jin 1997 ; GM99

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Juan M. Restrepo

Komen et al. (1984) ]. A dynamic of whitecapping that has an obvious cause and effect is the dissipation it imparts on the waves and currents. The effective dissipation sometimes changes dramatically when a sudden change in wind strength and/or wind direction occurs. Whitecapping has no complete theory, and inclusion of its effects in ocean dynamics models is accomplished via parameterizations, some of which can be very sophisticated [ WAMDI Group (1988) ; Alves and Banner (2003) ; Komen et al

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Lars Czeschel and Carsten Eden

1. Introduction Breaking of internal waves is a main source of energy for turbulence in the ocean interior. Sources of internal waves include interaction of tidal or balanced flow with bottom topography, loss of balance and wind stress, in particular storms, acting on the surface. Wind stress generated internal waves are often associated with frequencies near the inertial frequency. A prominent mechanism is the so-called “inertial pumping”: temporal fluctuations in the wind stress excite

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Yalin Fan, Isaac Ginis, and Tetsu Hara

the ocean response to TCs, the momentum flux into currents τ c is the most critical parameter. Research and operational coupled atmosphere–ocean models usually assume that τ c is identical to the momentum flux from air (wind stress) τ air ; that is, no net momentum is gained (or lost) by surface waves. This assumption, however, is invalid when the surface wave field is growing or decaying. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of surface gravity waves on the momentum

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Yair De Leon and Nathan Paldor

various waves can only be determined when boundary conditions are imposed on the general solutions of the (ordinary) differential equations. The imposed boundary conditions are either regularity (or vanishing) of the meridional velocity component at infinity, or its vanishing at two walls that are assumed to exist at some given latitudes. While the infinite domain is hard to justify on the β plane [where only first terms of f  ( y ) are retained], the assumption that two walls exist in the ocean is

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Jesse M. Cusack, Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, David A. Smeed, and James B. Girton

1. Introduction Lee waves can be generally defined as internal gravity waves generated by the interaction of a quasi-steady stratified flow with topography. Observations of such phenomena in the ocean are rare, with notable examples including high-frequency, tidally forced waves in the lee of ridges (e.g., Pinkel et al. 2012 ; Alford et al. 2014 ). Propagating waves must have a frequency between the local inertial frequency f and buoyancy frequency N , which precludes their generation in

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Antoine Hochet, Thierry Huck, and Alain Colin de Verdière

1. Introduction During the last 20 yr, the measurements of the ocean surface properties by satellite instruments have allowed us to significantly increase our knowledge of ocean dynamics. Chelton and Schlax (1996) were among the first to show that large-scale anomalies, propagating to the west, were observable in the altimetry. Since then, a large number of authors have described these anomalies, generally depicted as Rossby waves, using various techniques such as a Hovmöller diagram

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