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Juan Sulca, Mathias Vuille, Yamina Silva, and Ken Takahashi

convective activity known as the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ), formed by interactions with synoptic-scale wave trains emanating from the midlatitudes ( Liebmann et al. 1999 ). The SACZ is active all year; however, its maximum intensity is observed during the austral summer (e.g., Kodama 1992 ; Figueroa et al. 1995 ; Barreiro et al. 2002 ; Carvalho et al. 2004 ). Fig . 2. Climatology of DJFM 200-hPa winds (m s −1 ) and OLR (W m −2 ) for the period 1971–2010 from NCEP–NCAR reanalyses. The BH

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Renu Joseph, Thomas M. Smith, Mathew R. P. Sapiano, and Ralph R. Ferraro

section 4 . 2. Methodology for the creation of CHOMPS Four satellite precipitation estimates are used in our analysis: 1) the SSM/I, with at least two satellites in orbit at all times; 2) the AMSU-B, on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) operational satellites; 3) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) on Aqua [AMSR for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E)]; and 4) the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). The complete set of satellite observations, their periods of operation

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Xu Liu, Xuejuan Ren, and Xiu-Qun Yang

indicates an increase in local atmospheric moisture and is favorable to precipitation. However, our understanding of the water vapor transport anomalies associated with the PDO and NPGO is incomplete. In previous studies, the North Pacific region was found to be a key area of ocean-to-land and poleward water vapor transport ( Sohn et al. 2004 ; Newman et al. 2012 ; Zhang et al. 2013 ; Liu and Barnes 2015 ). Water vapor transport is conducted by time-mean atmospheric circulation, low

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Roop Saini, Guiling Wang, and Jeremy S. Pal

suggested to link the SST anomalies from surrounding oceans to the regional hydroclimate of the central United States ( Weaver and Nigam 2008 ; Weaver et al. 2009a , b ). In addition to remote oceanic forcing influencing precipitation, land surface conditions provide an important local forcing for precipitation through water, energy, and momentum flux exchanges with the atmosphere. Following Namias (1952) , many studies have since focused on land–atmosphere interactions, especially the feedback

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C. Lu, H. Yuan, E. I. Tollerud, and N. Wang

1. Introduction Decisions involving precipitation (sunny or cloudy, raining or snowing, etc.) have great influence on the daily lives of virtually everyone. At extremes, hurricanes/typhoons, snowstorms, torrential rains, and associated floods cause very heavy property damage and loss of life. Despite its importance, however, precipitation still presents perhaps the most difficult forecast and observational field for numerical weather prediction (NWP), especially over the ocean. As a result, the

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Yizhou Zhuang, Amir Erfanian, and Rong Fu

2012 over much of the Great Plains. The delayed response of a regional climate to slowly varying oceanic forcing and land–atmosphere interaction provides the foundation for seasonal prediction over many regions around the world. State-of-the-art seasonal prediction models provide relatively skillful predictions of winter hydroclimate over the United States, but show virtually no skill in prediction of summer rainfall anomalies over much of the North American continent ( Quan et al. 2012 ). Seasonal

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F. C. Sperna Weiland, L. P. H. van Beek, J. C. J. Kwadijk, and M. F. P. Bierkens

1. Introduction The transport of water through rivers to oceans was previously often neglected in general circulation models (GCMs; Miller et al. 1994 ). In the last decade it has been recognized that surface hydrology and river flow play an important role in the global climate system. For instance, the freshwater influx to oceans changes their salinity and consequently may affect ocean circulation and convection ( Arora 2001 ). Furthermore, the hydrological cycle influences feedback

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Xianghui Kong, Aihui Wang, Xunqiang Bi, Xingyu Li, and He Zhang

rainfall extremes; accumulated precipitation is highly dependent on precipitation frequency (95%), while extremes are related to rainfall intensity ( Li et al. 2016 ). Trenberth et al. (2017) concluded that the observed precipitation events usually persisted for 12–15 h over the oceans in the tropics and subtropics, while precipitation lasted 20 h from the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Climate models could provide continuous spatiotemporal hourly precipitation data for investigating its

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John M. Forsythe, Jason B. Dodson, Philip T. Partain, Stanley Q. Kidder, and Thomas H. Vonder Haar

surface temperature and TPW derived by Stephens (1990) over the ocean provides an example of the type of application in model diagnosis to which this technique could be applied. Cloud vertical frequency sensed from a variety of satellite instruments were compared to CloudSat and CALIPSO data by Wu et al. (2009) , but with an emphasis on cloud-top measurements. TPW over the globe is increasingly well observed from a variety of sensors (e.g., Kidder and Jones 2007 ; Boukabara et al. 2010

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Viviane B. S. Silva and Ernesto H. Berbery

associate with a stationary Rossby wave. The studies of Diaz and Aceituno (2003) and Liebmann et al. (2004) also associate the pattern to a wave train progressing from the South Pacific Ocean. These articles have different definitions of the mode, and some differences result in its structure, but they all agree on the importance of the low-level flow in the development of precipitation at each center of the dipole. The role of advective processes is apparent in the above studies, but it is not clear

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