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Dian J. Gaffen and Rebecca J. Ross

maps for 1899–1938 and maps of vapor pressure and wet-bulb depression for an unspecified data period. The Weather Atlas of the United States ( U.S. Department of Commerce 1968 ) includes monthly mean dewpoint maps and tables for 1946–65. The publication was reissued in 1993 with the title Climatic Atlas of the United States ( U.S. Department of Commerce 1993 ) and with the same dewpoint maps. The surface dewpoint ( T d ) studies of A. V. Dodd provide monthly maps ( Dodd 1965a ) and the seasonal

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B. Timbal, R. Kounkou, and G. A. Mills

1. Introduction Extreme weather events are often the most important aspect of the climate system felt by society and the natural environment; understanding the impact of any modification of the climate system on extreme events is therefore of the utmost importance. The Fourth Assessment Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Solomon et al. 2007 ) has put a critical emphasis on the modification of the extreme climate events resulting from anthropogenic forcings. In

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John W. Kidson and Craig S. Thompson

models nested within a GCM. Statistical techniques have their origin in the model output statistics (MOS) and “perfect prog” approaches to forecasting surface weather elements (e.g., Klein 1982 ; Glahn 1985 ). They include the use of regression analysis (e.g., Kim et al. 1984 ; Klein and Bloom 1989 ; Karl et al. 1990 ; Hewitson 1994 ), canonical correlations ( von Storch et al. 1993 ), and neural networks ( Hewitson 1997 ). While correlation techniques may be appropriate to continuous variables

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Donald R. Johnson and Akio Arakawa

undoubtedly be recognizedas one of a very few true pioneers in the developmentof global circulation models. With global circulationmodels now being a centerpiece of atmosphere sciencein both research and applications--medium- and longrange weather prediction models, atmospheric climatemodels, coupled atmospheric-ocean climate models,earth system models, planetary circulation models, atmospheric chemistry models, upper-atmosphere models, solar models, etc.--the entire scientific communityinvolved in

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Mateusz Taszarek, John Allen, Tomáš Púčik, Pieter Groenemeijer, Bartosz Czernecki, Leszek Kolendowicz, Kostas Lagouvardos, Vasiliki Kotroni, and Wolfgang Schulz

1. Introduction Thunderstorms, particularly severe events accompanied by large hail, damaging wind gusts, tornadoes, or flash floods, pose a considerable risk to society ( Brooks 2013 ; Papagiannaki et al. 2013 ; Terti et al. 2017 ; Papagiannaki et al. 2017 ). Therefore, knowledge of their local climatology is not only important for weather forecasting purposes, but also for risk assessment by emergency managers or the (re)insurance industry. Another pressing question is whether such

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K. E. Runnalls and T. R. Oke

identical in every respect, R should be close to unity. However, if the environment of one station changes relative to the other, in such a way as to differentially affect T ma x and T min , values of R increasingly different from unity are to be expected. This is particularly so when weather or surface conditions enhance spatial variations in nocturnal cooling and therefore temperature. The most favorable weather occurs when skies are cloudless and winds are weak or calm. For the purposes of

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Matthew Collins

1. Introduction The El Niño–Southern Oscillation [ENSO; see, e.g., Philander (1990) ] is the largest mode of interannual variability of the global climate system. It arises from a dynamical interaction of the ocean and atmosphere in the equatorial Pacific and it impacts the weather and climate both locally and via teleconnections to remote areas. In this study we examine the interannual ENSO-like variability in the second Hadley Centre coupled climate model (HadCM2). The goals of the study are

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F. Justino and W. R. Peltier

variability of present-day surface climate conditions has been increasingly explored in several publications (e.g., Wang et al. 2005 ; Rodwell et al. 1999 ; Rogers 1990 ; Wallace and Gutzler 1981 ). According to Thompson and Wallace (2001) , the AO affects not only mean conditions but also the day-to-day variability of the weather regime, modulating the intensity of midlatitude storms and the frequency of occurrence of high-latitude blocking and cold-air outbreaks throughout the NH. Observation

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Matthew J. Bunkers, James R. Miller Jr., and Arthur T. DeGaetano

130 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME 9Definition of Climate Regions in the Northern Plains Using an Objective Cluster Modification Technique MAam-mw I. BcrtOmRS* AND JAMES R. MILLER JR.Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota ARTHUR T. DEGAETANONortheast Regional Climate Center, Cornell

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Qingtao Song, Dudley B. Chelton, Steven K. Esbensen, Nicolai Thum, and Larry W. O’Neill

downwind SST gradient, and 3) wind curl is linearly related to the crosswind SST gradient. Depending on the resolution of the SST fields used as the bottom boundary condition, most research mesoscale models and operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) models successfully reproduce a positive correlation between surface wind speed anomalies and SST anomalies ( Small et al. 2003 ; Song et al. 2004 ; Chelton et al. 2004 ; Small et al. 2005 ; Chelton 2005 ; Chelton and Wentz 2005 ; Haack et al

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