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Gregory J. McCabe, David M. Wolock, and Melissa Valentin

.1175/1520-0442(1992)005<1468:CFATTO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(1992)005<1468:CFATTO>2.0.CO;2 Bamzai , A. S. , 2003 : Relationship between snow cover variability and Arctic Oscillation index on a hierarchy of time scales . Int. J. Climatol. , 23 , 131 – 142 , . 10.1002/joc.854 Berghuijs , W. R. , R. A. Woods , and M. Hrachowitz , 2014 : A precipitation shift from snow towards rain leads to a decrease in streamflow . Nat. Climate Change , 4 , 583 – 586 ,

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Jiangfeng Wei, Michael G. Bosilovich, and David M. Mocko

and Sudan has a large oscillation between oceanic sources in the winter and spring and terrestrial sources during summer into fall. Much of southern Africa has a similar variation, but 6 months out of phase. The general east–west gradient over North America is maintained throughout the year but fluctuates from a predominance of marine sources in winter to a much larger portion of continental sources in summer. Most of Eurasia also shows the same annual cycle as North America. Very strong gradients

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Maheswor Shrestha, Lei Wang, Toshio Koike, Yongkang Xue, and Yukiko Hirabayashi

from 452 to 8848 m (Mt. Everest) above mean sea level (MSL). It has complex physiographic variability with tropical forest in low-lying areas to semiarid and arctic environments in high-elevation regions. The catchment area is about 3700 km 2 . The annual precipitation averages about 1850 mm and has high altitudinal variability, from around 2500 mm at low elevation (below 3000 m) to around 600 mm at high elevation (above 4500 m). The climate has four seasons: winter (December–February), premonsoon

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Tian Zhou, Bart Nijssen, Huilin Gao, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

United States decreased by as much as 30% in June because of irrigation and reservoir regulations, while monthly streamflow increased by as much as 30% in Arctic river basins in Asia during the winter low-flow period. Oki and Kanae (2006) argue that these variations in streamflow can lead to water-related hazards such as droughts and floods if societies fail to anticipate or monitor these changes in the hydrological cycle. Furthermore, variations in reservoir storage have important implications for

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Andreas Stohl and Paul James

. L. , 1999 : Contrasting evaporative moisture sources during the drought of 1988 and the flood of 1993. J. Geophys. Res , 104 , 19383 – 19397 . 10.1029/1999JD900222 Eckhardt, S. , and Coauthors , 2003 : The North Atlantic Oscillation controls air pollution transport to the Arctic. Atmos. Chem. Phys , 3 , 1769 – 1778 . 10.5194/acp-3-1769-2003 Eckhardt, S. , Stohl A. , Wernli H. , James P. , Forster C. , and Spichtinger N. , 2004 : A 15-year climatology of warm conveyor

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Chul-Su Shin, Bohua Huang, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Subhadeep Halder, and Arun Kumar

prolong period of time) in the United States on seasonal time scales mainly result from sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and/or the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), with lesser contribution from SST anomalies in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans (e.g., Hoerling and Kumar 2003 ; McCabe et al. 2004 ; Seager et al. 2005 ; Cook et al. 2007 ; Hoerling et al. 2009 ; Seager and Hoerling 2014 ; Schubert et al. 2016 ; Huang et al

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Paul J. Neiman, F. Martin Ralph, Benjamin J. Moore, Mimi Hughes, Kelly M. Mahoney, Jason M. Cordeira, and Michael D. Dettinger

Gulf of California ( Fig. 5d ), which were bolstered by areal-averaged sea surface temperature anomalies of ~0.4°–0.8°C during a warm phase of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (i.e., multivariate ENSO index = 1.0–1.5; Wolter and Timlin 1998 ), provided additional water vapor (e.g., Newman et al. 2012 ). Farther south, dry air at 850 hPa (<~4 g kg −1 ) separated the AR from the tropical water vapor reservoir, while cold advection in northwesterly flow occurred poleward of the AR. The freezing

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Pingping Xie, Mingyue Chen, Song Yang, Akiyo Yatagai, Tadahiro Hayasaka, Yoshihiro Fukushima, and Changming Liu

– 2046 . 10.1175/1520-0477(2000)081<2035:EOPSSE>2.3.CO;2 Spencer, R. W. , 1993 : Global oceanic precipitation from MSU during 1979–91 and comparisons to other climatologies. J. Climate , 6 , 1301 – 1326 . 10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1301:GOPFTM>2.0.CO;2 Su, F. G. , Adam J. C. , Bowling L. C. , and Lettenmaier D. P. , 2005 : Streamflow simulation of the terrestrial Arctic domain. J. Geophys. Res. , 110 . D08112, doi:10.1029/10.1029/2004JD005518 . Susskind, J. , Piraino P

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M. Alves, D. F. Nadeau, B. Music, F. Anctil, and A. Parajuli

the topsoil layer (within ~0.15 m deep from the skin soil surface). Blue, green, and red lines correspond to CTL, RNL, and RNL-ObsP simulations, respectively. The soil moisture simulations at ON-OMW ( Fig. 10c ) show reasonable agreement with observations for only some parts of the snow accumulation period (DJFM) and late snowmelt period (May). For the most part, however, CLASS results greatly disagree with observations, showing many oscillations (peaks) that are not shown by the measurements. Its

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Yafang Zhong, Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<0569:CAALSH>2.0.CO;2 Crow , W. T. , R. Dongryeol , and J. S. Famiglietti , 2005 : Upscaling of field-scale soil moisture measurements using distributed land surface modeling . Adv. Water Resour. , 28 , 1 – 14 , . 10.1016/j.advwatres.2004.10.004 Czaja , A. , and C. Frankignoul , 2002 : Observed impact of Atlantic SST anomalies on the North Atlantic Oscillation . J. Climate , 15 , 606 – 623 ,

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