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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Jiangfeng Wei, Michael G. Bosilovich, and David M. Mocko

and Sudan has a large oscillation between oceanic sources in the winter and spring and terrestrial sources during summer into fall. Much of southern Africa has a similar variation, but 6 months out of phase. The general east–west gradient over North America is maintained throughout the year but fluctuates from a predominance of marine sources in winter to a much larger portion of continental sources in summer. Most of Eurasia also shows the same annual cycle as North America. Very strong gradients

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Tian Zhou, Bart Nijssen, Huilin Gao, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

United States decreased by as much as 30% in June because of irrigation and reservoir regulations, while monthly streamflow increased by as much as 30% in Arctic river basins in Asia during the winter low-flow period. Oki and Kanae (2006) argue that these variations in streamflow can lead to water-related hazards such as droughts and floods if societies fail to anticipate or monitor these changes in the hydrological cycle. Furthermore, variations in reservoir storage have important implications for

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Susan Frankenstein, Anne Sawyer, and Julie Koeberle

incoming and reflected solar radiations are used to drive the models, FASST did better at Buffalo Pass, Walton Creek, and Fool Creek during the accumulation period. Both models do very well at predicting the slope and diurnal oscillations in the ablation phase at the two Rabbit Ears ISAs, whereas SNTHERM becomes unstable at Fool Creek, melting out much quicker than observed. In all cases, FASSTi melts quicker than FASST, with the former predicting melt-out before the actual date, whereas FASST and

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Bruce T. Anderson, Jingyun Wang, Suchi Gopal, and Guido Salvucci

. 2002 ); the passage of midlatitude waves originating from the northern Pacific ( Matthews and Kiladis 1999 ; Mo 2000 ); transient midlatitude, midtroposphere structures ( Carleton 1986 ; Maddox et al. 1995 ; Anderson and Roads 2002 ); mesoscale convective systems ( Nieto-Ferreira and Schubert 1997 ; Carvalho and Jones 2001 ); mesoscale to synoptic-scale squall lines ( Cohen et al. 1995 ); the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) (e.g., Higgins et al. 2004 ); and Gulf of California surges ( Stensrud

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Gregory J. McCabe, David M. Wolock, and Melissa Valentin

.1175/1520-0442(1992)005<1468:CFATTO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(1992)005<1468:CFATTO>2.0.CO;2 Bamzai , A. S. , 2003 : Relationship between snow cover variability and Arctic Oscillation index on a hierarchy of time scales . Int. J. Climatol. , 23 , 131 – 142 , . 10.1002/joc.854 Berghuijs , W. R. , R. A. Woods , and M. Hrachowitz , 2014 : A precipitation shift from snow towards rain leads to a decrease in streamflow . Nat. Climate Change , 4 , 583 – 586 ,

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Andreas Stohl and Paul James

. L. , 1999 : Contrasting evaporative moisture sources during the drought of 1988 and the flood of 1993. J. Geophys. Res , 104 , 19383 – 19397 . 10.1029/1999JD900222 Eckhardt, S. , and Coauthors , 2003 : The North Atlantic Oscillation controls air pollution transport to the Arctic. Atmos. Chem. Phys , 3 , 1769 – 1778 . 10.5194/acp-3-1769-2003 Eckhardt, S. , Stohl A. , Wernli H. , James P. , Forster C. , and Spichtinger N. , 2004 : A 15-year climatology of warm conveyor

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Paul J. Neiman, F. Martin Ralph, Benjamin J. Moore, Mimi Hughes, Kelly M. Mahoney, Jason M. Cordeira, and Michael D. Dettinger

Gulf of California ( Fig. 5d ), which were bolstered by areal-averaged sea surface temperature anomalies of ~0.4°–0.8°C during a warm phase of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (i.e., multivariate ENSO index = 1.0–1.5; Wolter and Timlin 1998 ), provided additional water vapor (e.g., Newman et al. 2012 ). Farther south, dry air at 850 hPa (<~4 g kg −1 ) separated the AR from the tropical water vapor reservoir, while cold advection in northwesterly flow occurred poleward of the AR. The freezing

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Chul-Su Shin, Bohua Huang, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Subhadeep Halder, and Arun Kumar

prolong period of time) in the United States on seasonal time scales mainly result from sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and/or the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), with lesser contribution from SST anomalies in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans (e.g., Hoerling and Kumar 2003 ; McCabe et al. 2004 ; Seager et al. 2005 ; Cook et al. 2007 ; Hoerling et al. 2009 ; Seager and Hoerling 2014 ; Schubert et al. 2016 ; Huang et al

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Pingping Xie, Mingyue Chen, Song Yang, Akiyo Yatagai, Tadahiro Hayasaka, Yoshihiro Fukushima, and Changming Liu

– 2046 . 10.1175/1520-0477(2000)081<2035:EOPSSE>2.3.CO;2 Spencer, R. W. , 1993 : Global oceanic precipitation from MSU during 1979–91 and comparisons to other climatologies. J. Climate , 6 , 1301 – 1326 . 10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1301:GOPFTM>2.0.CO;2 Su, F. G. , Adam J. C. , Bowling L. C. , and Lettenmaier D. P. , 2005 : Streamflow simulation of the terrestrial Arctic domain. J. Geophys. Res. , 110 . D08112, doi:10.1029/10.1029/2004JD005518 . Susskind, J. , Piraino P

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Camille Garnaud, Stéphane Bélair, Marco L. Carrera, Chris Derksen, Bernard Bilodeau, Maria Abrahamowicz, Nathalie Gauthier, and Vincent Vionnet

and Simmonds 1996 ; Cohen et al. 2001 ), including monsoon climates ( Barnett et al. 1989 ; Vernekar et al. 1995 ) and the North Atlantic Oscillation ( Cohen and Saito 2001 ). Furthermore, with snow’s ability to store water, snowmelt processes are essential to hydrological applications since they control the timing and amount of snowmelt runoff and ultimately streamflow ( Yang et al. 2003 ). Because of its geographical location, Canada is particularly affected by snow processes and their impact

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