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Guoqiang Tang, Martyn P. Clark, and Simon Michael Papalexiou

Tmin occurs during the night and represents the temperature of the nocturnal boundary layer, which is thicker than the daytime mixed layer ( Klotzbach et al. 2009 ). Local factors such as land-cover types have more impact on Tmin and its variability than Tmax ( Pena-Angulo et al. 2015 ). The spatial correlation length of Tmin could also be shorter than that of Tmax ( Pena-Angulo et al. 2015 ; Tang et al. 2020 ). Therefore, Tmax could be less demanding for station densities in spatial interpolation

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Sha Lu, Marie-claire ten Veldhuis, and Nick van de Giesen

( Mathugama and Peiris 2011 ). For the determination of CWD, a 5-day moving average was used instead of daily rainfall accumulation, which allows to better account for severe prolonged wet spells. The 5-day moving average of the current day is the mean of the previous 5 days in this study. The indicators of dry spell and wet spell are given by CDD10/CDD20: the occurrences are counted of days in a period where there are at least 10 or 20 consecutive dry days with precipitation less than 0.1 mm; CWD10/CWD20

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Pravat Jena, Sourabh Garg, and Sarita Azad

the current prediction models are not accurate ( Das et al. 2006 ; Chevuturi et al. 2015 ). There is a severe challenge in calibrating these models because of an insufficient number of observational stations in complex terrain ( Singh and Mal 2014 ). Since the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded dataset is used for most of the validation studies, in this paper we posit that these observed data should be evaluated because of the two reasons. First, due to the Himalayas’s complex terrain

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C. Cattoën, D. E. Robertson, J. C. Bennett, Q. J. Wang, and T. K. Carey-Smith

Convective Scale Model (NZCSM), a local implementation of the U.K. Met Office Unified Model System (UM), which has been run operationally since 2014. NZCSM is run as a deterministic model, with a grid resolution of 1.5 km and outputs archived at a 30-min time step. Forecasts are run to a lead time of 36 h. NZCSM takes its forcing from the New Zealand Limited Area Model (NZLAM), a regional NWP model run at a 12-km resolution that uses lateral boundary conditions from the global version of the UM run by

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Pradeep V. Mandapaka and Edmond Y. M. Lo

1600 UTC current day) scales. Fig . 1. Map showing eight GPM 0.1° grid cells and the daily and hourly gauge networks used for evaluation of GPM IMERG rainfall estimates. The version 06B dataset extends back to June 2000 and contains IMERG products, which have been retrospectively generated for the TRMM era. We used these retrospectively generated products for the hourly analysis period of January 2005–December 2010. Despite significant efforts to create a continuous and homogenous dataset across

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Fidele Karamage, Yuanbo Liu, and Yongwei Liu

were selected based on their long time series of data availability and recent versioning with improved accuracies. Modified CN-based runoff was simulated using five main datasets including, precipitation, land use and land cover (LULC), soil texture (sand, silt, and clay), digital elevation model (DEM), and water withdrawal related to human population data. Calibration of the simulated runoff was performed by employing two datasets (river discharges and major basin boundaries). Analysis of the

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K. Haleakala, M. Gebremichael, J. Dozier, and D. P. Lettenmaier

retention or discharge of rainfall. In some cases, a rainfall event may refreeze entirely in the snowpack with no immediate runoff or snowmelt. However, the degree to which these and the abovementioned factors govern ROS response may be muffled by inconsistent thresholds used to define rainfall or preexisting snow. Moreover, few studies have observed the boundary governing whether SWE accumulates or ablates during winter ROS, or events in which the in-storm temperature is near or above the melting point

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Simon R. Osborne and Graham P. Weedon

related to radiative cooling of the surface, typically in calm surface conditions, the eddy-covariance measurements of latent heat flux at 10 m almost invariably fail to represent the times, magnitudes and changes in negative heat flux overnight ( Fig. 7d ). For the same reasons, JULES is currently unable to simulate appropriate negative latent heat flux during dewfall conditions. Despite the improvement in JULES SHG overnight when using canht-rootd-kext compared to control , and also despite the

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Yanan Meng, Jianhua Sun, Yuanchun Zhang, and Shenming Fu

parameters, precipitation, and background circulations for all MCS categories are presented in section 3 ; and finally, section 4 presents a conclusion and discusses the results. Fig . 1. Geographic distribution of elevations in southwestern China (shading; m). The blue box is the study region, while the extended area (red box) denotes the MCS formation area. The purple lines represent the boundaries of the Tibetan Plateau and the Yungui Plateau. 2. Data and methods a. Data Hourly 0.05° × 0

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Jessica C. A. Baker, Dayana Castilho de Souza, Paulo Y. Kubota, Wolfgang Buermann, Caio A. S. Coelho, Martin B. Andrews, Manuel Gloor, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Silvio N. Figueroa, and Dominick V. Spracklen

magnitude of SM–ET relationships, representation of variables impacting land–atmosphere interactions over the Caatinga in ERA5-Land, HadGEM3, and BAM-1.2 could still be improved. d. Tracing surface-to-atmosphere moisture pathways When considering land–atmosphere moisture transfer pathways, it can be helpful to distinguish between processes that operate at the land–atmosphere interface and processes that occur in the atmospheric boundary layer. For example, the coupling between the land surface and

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