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William S. Kessler, Gregory C. Johnson, and Dennis W. Moore

unrealistic poleward boundaries. Bulk formulas are used for latent, longwave, and sensible heat fluxes, according to the formulation of Seager et al. (1988) , which requires heat flux forcing through specified wind stresses and clouds only. The equation of state is a linear function of temperature, with no effect of salinity, although the mean salinity distribution and its variations are likely to be an important contribution to density in the tropical Pacific ( Murtugudde and Busalacchi 1998 ; Ji et al

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Nicholas E. Graham and Warren B. White

phase of the ENSO cycle. Both of the coupled models produce correctly timed E1 Nifio episodes,yet as configured for our experiments, neither modelc 1990 American Meteorological Society1936 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY -OLUME20can sustain oscillations on its own. Thus, the episodesproduced in that model can be laid to the prescribedwestern boundary forcing and its interaction with theelements of the model coupled

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Ann E. Gargett and Dana K. Savidge

derivative of Eq. (1) . This function is unbounded at x 3 = 0 and dominated by high frequency/wavenumbers near surface: however GG14 demonstrated that it becomes bounded at high frequency/wavenumber by x 3 = −3 m. This behavior was confirmed at Tower R2 (not shown): thus, as did GG14 , we use shear calculated at x 3 = −3 m as a representative near-surface Stokes shear. 3. Temporal evolution of surface forcing during TS Barry Figure 3 describes the temporal evolution of winds and waves

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Xu Zhang, Youyu Lu, and Keith R. Thompson

important role in the onset and development of some El Niño events (e.g., McPhaden 1999 ; Bergman et al. 2001 ). Intraseasonal Kelvin wave signals can be detected in observations of thermocline depth (e.g., Kessler et al. 1995 ) and sea level observed by satellite altimeters. In addition to Kelvin waves, intraseasonal variations of the equatorial ocean may also be related to dynamic processes related to the propagation of Rossby waves and tropical instability waves. The forcing and propagation

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Øystein Skagseth and Kjell Arne Mork

: Thermohaline effects in the ocean circulation and related simpler models. Large-Scale Transport Processes in Oceans and Atmosphere, J. Willebrand and D. L. T. Anderson, Eds., D. Reidel, 163–200. Wetherald, R. Y., and S. Manabe, 1986: An investigation of cloud cover change in response to thermal forcing. Climate Change, 8, 5–23. Wilson, C. A., and J. F. B. Mitchell, 1987: A double CO 2 climate sensitivity experiment with a global climate model including a simple ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 92

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David W. Pierce, K-Y. Kim, and Tim P. Barnett

EBM is fully coupled to an OGCM with realistic forcing fields and bathymetry: the Hamburg Large Scale Geostrophic (LSG) Model (Hasselmann 1982; Mikolajewicz and Maier-Reimer 1990; Maier-Reimer et al. 1993). The physics of the coupled model is such that small-scale SST anomalies are damped rapidly by diffusion, while large-scale ones cool slowly via longwave' loss to space; thus scale-dependent coupling is an integral part of the model. Net precipitation minus evaporation (P - E) is applied as a

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Irena Vaňková and David M. Holland

waves in a fjord in high temporal resolution. This setup made it possible to determine the direction of propagation of waves in this fjord and allowed to distinguish between glacier- and ocean-generated signal. Different types of high-frequency waves are identified, and calving-generated waves are characterized. A numerical model is used to reproduce the observed properties of calving-generated waves and a damped oscillator forcing with a period between 5 and 10 min is suggested to represent well

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Carol Ladd and Lu Anne Thompson

interaction with the atmosphere, thus modifying water properties and circulation patterns in the permanent thermocline. The formation of mode water may be an important source of low potential vorticity to the thermocline. Mode water formation may be an important method of transmitting the effects of atmospheric forcing to the subsurface ocean. Worthington (1959) first recognized the importance of mode water with his study of 18° Water in the subtropical North Atlantic. Since then, mode water has also

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Natalie Perlin, Eric D. Skyllingstad, Roger M. Samelson, and Philip L. Barbour

1. Introduction In a classical wind-driven upwelling system, sustained southward winds along the eastern ocean boundary lead to offshore transport in the surface ocean layer and result in upward transport of colder bottom waters near the coast. This coastal circulation and the associated meteorological forcing have been the subject of numerous observational, theoretical, and modeling studies (e.g., Smith 1974 ; Halpern 1976 ; Huyer 1983 ; Lentz 1995 ; Enriquez and Friehe 1995 ; Allen et

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Shengquan Tang, Hans von Storch, and Xueen Chen

/N ratio in the climatic system. The challenge of discriminating between the signal related to some forcing of interest, and the noise, which is generated internally, has been recognized in the global modeling communities for almost 50 years—with significant consequences for numerical experimentation and evaluation of observed variations. The regional atmospheric modeling communities, however, seem to have overseen the issue for a long time. Only in the late 1990s, was the regional atmospheric modeling

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