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Sergey Y. Matrosov, Peter T. May, and Matthew D. Shupe

estimations (QPEs) for almost five decades. Traditional radar-based estimators for rainfall use relations between radar reflectivity factor (hereafter just reflectivity) Z e and rainfall rate R (i.e., Z e – R relations). Rainfall rate is proportional to the product of the drop terminal velocity V t and the rainwater mass, which is itself proportional to the third moment of the drop size distribution (DSD) spectra: where D is the equal-volume sphere drop diameter and the angular brackets

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Rui M. Ponte, Carl Wunsch, and Detlef Stammer

. , 2007 : Interannual to decadal changes in the ECCO global synthesis. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 37 , 313 – 337 . 10.1175/JPO3014.1 Le Traon, P. Y. , and Dibarboure G. , 2004 : An illustration of the contribution of the TOPEX/Poseidon-Jason-1 tandem mission to mesoscale variability studies. Mar. Geod. , 27 , 3 – 13 . 10.1080/01490410490489313 Le Traon, P. Y. , Faugere Y. , Hernandez F. , Dorandeu J. , Mertz F. , and Ablain M. , 2003 : Can we merge GEOSAT Follow-On with TOPEX

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R. Droghei, B. Buongiorno Nardelli, and R. Santoleri

impact of SSS observations on the seasonal variability of tropical dynamics. More recently, Zhu et al. (2014) investigated the role of SSS in the medium- and low-frequency variability of Pacific climate through its effects on SSD, which is associated with horizontal pressure gradients and stratification. Similarly, a significant impact on North Atlantic Ocean salinity in driving the decadal variability of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) has been observed (e

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Jessica S. Worst, Kathleen A. Donohue, and T. Rossby

ADCP program on the Motonave (M/N) Nuka Arctica , in service between Greenland and Denmark ( Knutsen et al. 2005 ); the Motor Ship (M/S) Explorer of the Seas , which cruises in the Sargasso Sea and Caribbean ( Beal et al. 2008 ); and the M/S Norröna , which sails out of the Faroe Islands to Denmark and Iceland ( Rossby and Flagg 2012 ). The Oleander Project was initiated to study long-term variability on interannual and decadal time scales across the Gulf Steam and surrounding waters in the

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Ariane Verdy, Bruce Cornuelle, Matthew R. Mazloff, and Daniel L. Rudnick

1. Introduction Estimation of the tropical Pacific Ocean state is important for seasonal to interannual predictability ( McPhaden et al. 1998 ; Guilyardi et al. 2009 ). Variability of the thermocline depth and the propagation of Kelvin waves along the equator play important roles in El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), driving the need for observing subsurface ocean temperature, among other variables ( Capotondi et al. 2015 ). There is a large observing system in the tropical Pacific

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John P. Dunne, Allan H. Devol, and Steven Emerson

.) or chemical change caused by human impact (eutrophication and subsequent ecosystem change, toxicity). The means of assessment of change is frequently through time series measurements of temperature, salinity, phytoplankton biomass, particle mass, nutrient, and oxygen data. While local monitoring programs provide geographically extensive measurements of water quality parameters, the sampling rate is far too coarse to support a mechanistic analysis of variability forcing from tidal and other

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Claire McCaskill, Lynn K. Shay, Jodi K. Brewster, and Patrick C. Meyers

– 948 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1994)007<0929:IGSSTA>2.0.CO;2 . Rio, M.-H. , and Hernandez F. , 2004 : A mean dynamic topography computed over the world ocean from altimetry, in situ measurements, and a geoid model . J. Geophys. Res. , 109 , C12032 , doi: 10.1029/2003JC002226 . Roemmich, D. , and Gilson J. , 2001 : Eddy transport of heat and thermocline waters in the North Pacific: A key to interannual/decadal climate variability? J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 31 , 675 – 687 , doi: 10

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Chengzu Bai, Ren Zhang, Senliang Bao, X. San Liang, and Wenbo Guo

1. Introduction In predicting the interannual variability of tropical cyclone (TC; see appendix A for a glossary of the acronyms) geneses over the western North Pacific (WNP), there are two outstanding problems that have caught wide attention. The first problem is unraveling the causal relation between various climate factors and the WNP TC genesis, and the other problem is how to forecast the TC genesis. Regarding the first problem, there have been many studies on cyclone

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F. Raffa, G. Ludeno, B. Patti, F. Soldovieri, S. Mazzola, and F. Serafino

’Ambiente Marino Costiero (IAMC) del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)] located in Capo Granitola, Sicily, when available, or otherwise by the meteorological station of Mazara del Vallo, at about 10 km from the experiment site (data available at ). 3. X-band radar for upwelling detection and monitoring X-band radars are gaining interest in the last decades because they are inexpensive and because of the wide scope of their application

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Liyan Liu, Carlos Lozano, and Dan Iredell

employ monthly temporal means, and the variability is expressed as monthly anomalies from averaging a few decades of monthly means. In this paragraph we refer to them as standard monthly anomalies. If one considers an ensemble of 1-yr decomposition [ (4) ], then it becomes clear that the standard monthly anomalies tend to have a relatively small component from the year harmonic and a significant (aliased) contribution from the other year harmonics, and from R ′. The standard monthly anomalies do not

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