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Luke A. Parsons, Garrison R. Loope, Jonathan T. Overpeck, Toby R. Ault, Ronald Stouffer, and Julia E. Cole

precipitation) exhibit higher (or lower) amplitudes at lower frequencies ( Huybers and Curry 2006 ). However, comparative studies among climate model and observation data have indicated that there may be up to an order of magnitude mismatch between proxy and simulated temperature and precipitation variability at decade–century time scales (e.g., Ault et al. 2013a , b ; Franke et al. 2013 ; Laepple and Huybers 2014b ). Understanding variability at these time scales is important for studies of climate

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J. S. Chowdary, Shang-Ping Xie, Hiroki Tokinaga, Yuko M. Okumura, Hisayuki Kubota, Nat Johnson, and Xiao-Tong Zheng

et al. 2010 ), are not stable in time but experience substantial interdecadal modulations. Many studies of such low-frequency modulations of interannual variability are limited to recent decades after 1950 ( Nitta and Yamada 1989 ; Trenberth and Hurrell 1994 ; Terray and Dominiak 2005 ; Annamalai et al. 2005 ; Xie et al. 2010 ), owing to the lack of high-quality observations over tropical oceans. A few studies have examined ENSO-induced SST variability over the Indo–western Pacific region

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Sally Langford, Samantha Stevenson, and David Noone

lasting almost a decade. The potential economic and social cost of such intense and sustained events such as these motivates the need to understand the mechanisms for drought variability and persistence, critical for the eventual development of effective forecasting methods. Decadal (5–10 yr) precipitation variability in southwestern North America is hypothesized to be partly attributable to Pacific or Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies (e.g., Barlow et al. 2001 ; Hoerling and

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Yun Yang, Lixin Wu, and Changfang Fang

modes. So far, studies have been mainly focusing on the response of interannual variability modes to global warming, for instance, changes in patterns and amplitudes of ENSO [see a recent review by Collins et al. (2010) ] and the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD; Saji et al. 1999 ) under global warming (e.g., Vecchi and Soden 2007 ; Abram et al. 2008 ; Ihara et al. 2008 ). In this paper, we will investigate the impacts of global warming on low frequency, in particular the decadal variations of SST over

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Warren B. White, Alexander Gershunov, and Jeffrey Annis

in general (i.e., its phase, magnitude, and duration throughout the twentieth century) within the context of known climatic signals observed in global patterns of SST and sea level pressure (SLP) variability during the twentieth century ( Allan 2000 ; White and Tourre 2003 ). These signals include the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of ∼2.3-yr period; the four El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals of ∼2.9-, 3.5-, 4.4-, and 5.5-yr period; the quasi-decadal oscillation (QDO) of ∼11-yr

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Miaoni Gao, Jing Yang, Daoyi Gong, Peijun Shi, Zhangang Han, and Seong-Joong Kim

–Southern Oscillation and AMO ( Zhou and Wu 2016 ). These diversities motivated us to investigate the dominant natural contributors for each core region and their linkages. As two of the most important natural internal variabilities on the decadal to multidecadal time scales that could influence the climate in local and remote regions (e.g., Sutton and Hodson 2005 ; Sun et al. 2015 ; Dong and Dai 2015 ), AMO and interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO) become a major focus. Based on several indices of global

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F. Álvarez-García, M. Latif, and A. Biastoch

1. Introduction Observational studies have revealed considerable decadal and multidecadal variability in the surface climate of the North Atlantic Ocean ( Deser and Blackmon 1993 ; Kushnir 1994 ; Czaja and Marshall 2001 ). The potential predictability associated with such low-frequency fluctuations as well as their possible modification by the expected anthropogenic climate change have motivated recent efforts to understand the physical mechanisms responsible for these variations. On the

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Daniel R. Cayan, Michael D. Dettinger, Henry F. Diaz, and Nicholas E. Graham

. Alternatively, it might be that these spells are the low-frequency residual of random processes, that is, nothing more than reddened noise. To approach these questions, this paper and a companion study of zonally averaged precipitation along the North American west coast by Dettinger et al. (1998) describe aspects of interannual–decadal-scale variability. Here we examine the following aspects of decadal precipitation variability (periods of 7 yr and greater) over western North America: 1) What is the

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S. M. Dean and P. A. Stott

observations after the effect of the M1 has been removed through linear regression. b. Internal and forced variability For a detection and attribution analysis it is important to demonstrate that the models are able to capture the unforced and forced variability of the regional temperature observations. Here we use two separate methodologies to evaluate this. First, we calculate the standard deviations of interannual and decadal means for 100 yr of the NZTS from 1854 to 1953. Second, the standard deviation

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Jin-Yi Yu and Seon Tae Kim

1. Introduction The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) undergoes decadal and interdecadal variations in its frequency, intensity, and propagation pattern (e.g., Wang and Wang 1996 ; An and Wang 2000 ; Fedorov and Philander 2000 ; Timmermann 2003 ; An and Jin 2004 ; Yeh and Kirtman 2004 ; and many others). Earlier studies considered decadal ENSO variability to be forced by decadal variability in the extratropical Pacific Ocean via ocean subduction, thermocline ventilation, or atmospheric

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