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Wolfgang Koch and Frauke Feser

and Foster (2003) ; they showed these small-scale wind streaks being very closely aligned with the surface wind direction. The present study searches for relationships between wind-induced patterns on SAR images and wind direction at the 10-m height. Both entities are accessible by proxy data. The wind vectors are approximated by a numerical weather model, while the directions of image patterns are approximated by a method that is based on gradients. Although well-processed measurements are

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David R. Stauffer and Thomas T. Warner

VOLUME II5a. Cold-air damming The geography and topography of the eastern UnitedStates is favorable for cold-air damming, the processby which cold, stable air from a surface anticyclone,with its center located somewhere in the northeasternUnited States, flows southwestward and is channeledalong the Appalachian Mountain chain. The mountains, perhaps acting as a physical barrier to the flow,"trap" or "dam" the air along the eastern slopes, particularly during the winter. As a result, a "nose" ofhigh

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H. H. Schiesser, R. A. Houze Jr., and H. Huntrieser

selected for our study aretreated in the same manner; that is, they are classifiedaccording to the scheme of HSD. This procedure allowsus to compare the organization of storms occurring inthe mountainous and hilly region of Switzerland withmesoscale convective systems in the generally flat region of Oklahoma.2. Study area, data, and definitionsa. Area and period of study Figure 1 shows the location of the study area. It issituated within the area covered by two operationalweather radars and has a

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Richard A. Anthes, Ying-Hwa Kuo, Stanley G. Benjamin, and Yu-Fang Li

SEPTEMBER 1982 ANTHES, KUO, BENJAMIN AND LI 1187The Evolution of the Mesoscale Environment of Severe Local Storms: Preliminary Modeling Results RICHARD A. ANTHESNational Center for Atmospheric Research, ~ Boulder, CO 80307YING-HWA KUO AND STANLEY G. BENJAMINThe Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802 YU-FANG LIDepartment of Geography, Hang-zhou University, People

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Alexandre O. Fierro, Robert F. Rogers, Frank D. Marks, and David S. Nolan

nested domain configuration: While the parent and nested domains were fixed to cover the same geographical area, the horizontal grid spacing of the parent (i.e., outer) domain was systematically varied such that the horizontal grid spacing of the inner nest ranged between 1 and 5 km by increments of 1 km. In other words, our study consists of a set of five numerical simulations, referred to as the 15–5-, 12–4-, 9–3-, 6–2-, and 3–1-km cases, respectively, whose domains all cover the same area for

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.The geographic distribution of the reports is shown infigure 1. Unfortunately, the scale of the map does notpermit the diverse and complex topography of the islandsto be depicted. The clustering along the south shore ofOahu and through its central saddle is almost certainly1110re of demographic, than of meteorological, significance.In fact, the plotted symbols pretty well reflect the loca-tion of weather stations and the population density-arelationship noted, also, in the continental United Stat,es.This is

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W. A. L. D. O. L. McATEE

, it will be seen that a fall of a ton of microscopic organisms per square mile is within t,he bounds of possibihty.It is not only the hot and dry sirocco that is laden with dust containing organisms, for indeed they are in the air evergwhere a t all times. The researches of MM. Miquel and Boudier8 in France, rrticularly have elucidated the nature of atmospheric ust. The atnios- phere alwa s is cha ed with a large number of organic entities. &e vegeale constituents are chiefly bacilli and the

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Brandon J. Vogt and Stephen J. Hodanish

1. Introduction In map form, lightning climatologies reveal variations in lightning activity across an area. This cartographic information benefits a wide range of entities including those that maintain networks and infrastructures vulnerable to lightning and those with interests in hydrology and wildland fire management. In Colorado and other mountainous regions with abundant summertime outdoor recreation opportunities, a high-resolution lightning climatology map is particularly relevant from

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

part of the analysis, thus precluding any straightforward automation. This motivated several recent initiatives to design computer-based algorithms, which allow one to automatically identify and track RWPs. The definition of such RWP objects finally makes explicit the idea that RWPs are meteorologically relevant entities. It opens new opportunities, like systematically screening reanalysis data and producing statistics regarding specific RWP properties such as their size, duration, and location of

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Philip T. Bergmaier, Bart Geerts, Leah S. Campbell, and W. James Steenburgh

velocity field, since typical roll angles were relatively small. Fig . 1. Topographic maps showing (a) the WRF domains with 30-arc-s topography (m MSL, color filled following scale at bottom), and (b) model topography from the 1.33-km domain (m MSL) centered on the region surrounding Lake Ontario. Sounding sites, the location of the KTYX radar, and geographic features are shown in (b). Following these corrections, an estimated hydrometeor fall speed can be removed to obtain an estimate of the air

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