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Anthony C. Hirst, Siobhan P. O’Farrell, and Hal B. Gordon

unrealistically light relative to the overlying surface waters (e.g., England 1993 ; Togweiller and Samuels 1995 ; Hirst and McDougall 1996 , 1998 ). The spurious convection typically brings excessive quantities of heat and/or salt to the surface, and so a large flux adjustment is required to maintain realistic surface temperatures and salinities. Shifts in the patterns of convection during the course of the control run may move the venting of oceanic heat away from the offsetting flux adjustment pattern

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Jeffrey C. Rogers and Marilyn N. Raphael

127FEBRUARY 1992ROGERS AND RAPHAELMeridional Eddy Sensible Heat Fluxes in the Extremesof the Pacific / North American Teleconnection PatternJEFFREY C. ROGERSDepartment of Geography, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OhioMARILYN N. RAPHAELDepartment of Geography, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California(Manuscript received 8 March 1991, in final form 12 August 1991)ABSTRACTThe geographical distribution of meridional eddy sensible heat transport in the extremes of the

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Chunhui Li, Tim Li, Jianyin Liang, Dejun Gu, Ailan Lin, and Bin Zheng

(ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data. These global 2.5° × 2.5° monthly mean reanalysis data consist of 12-layer temperature, geopotential height, and wind fields from 100 to 1000 hPa and four surface heat flux (i.e., latent and sensible heat flux and the net upward longwave and downward shortwave radiation) components for the period of 1958–2002. Other data used in this study include 1) precipitation and temperature data from 743 weather stations across China (1958–2002) provided by the National Climate

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K. W. Nicholls and J. G. Paren

for Eb have been adopted inan attempt to parameterize the thermal state of the icecolumns at the start of the time series. There is noreason to suppose that the geothermal heat flux beneathDolleman Island is extreme. The crustal thickness isaround 20 km [profile B of Fig. 10 ofGarrett ( 1990)]near the global average, and there is no evidence ofyoung volcanism on the east coast of the AntarcticPeninsula. The most probable value of the geothermalheat tlux is 50 mW m-2, but because of the

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Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Alexander Sen Gupta, and Matthew H. England

anomalously easterly/northeasterly flow between 1951 and 1975, and then westerly/southwesterly airflow anomalies again during 1976–98, with a strengthened tropical anticyclonic belt over northern New Zealand. During 1930–50, Salinger and Mullan (1999) found conditions to be wetter in the northeastern part of the South Island, drier in the north and west of the South Island, and cooler over the entire country. The period 1951–75 was warmer throughout, wetter in the north of the North Island and drier in

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Andrew M. Carleton

212 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME 1Meridional Transport of Eddy Sensible Heat in Winters Marked by Extremes of the North Atlantic Oscillation, 1948/49-1979/80 ANDREW M. CARLETONDepartment of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana(Manuscript received 28 July 1986, in final form 25 September 1987)ABSTRACT Composite patterns of eddy sensible heat transport at 700 mb on the Northern Hemisphere

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David J. Stephens, Michael J. Meuleners, Harry van Loon, Malcolm H. Lamond, and Nicola P. Telcik

through zonal advection and displacement of the thermocline. The timing and amplitude of 1997 warming was attributed to exceptionally strong westerly wind events/Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) activity, strong downwelling kelvin waves ( McPhaden and Yu 1999 ; Picaut et al. 2002 ; Lengaigne et al. 2003 ), and a buildup of upper-ocean heat early in the year ( Meinen and McPhaden 2000 ; Sun 2003 ). MJO activity was also proposed as a “triggering mechanism” that accelerated the ending of the event

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Wenju Cai and P. H. Whetton

El Niño–like pattern. Several issues arise. Are the circulation pathways reasonably reproduced by the model? Does the proposed mechanism also operate on other timescales? Do meridional heat balances display corresponding changes? This paper addresses these issues. First, we show that the time-varying warming pattern is represented by two EOFs and that patterns of the first two EOFs from observations are similar to those from the CSIRO model simulations. We analyze heat budget of meridional heat

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J. C. Pérez, J. P. Díaz, A. González, J. Expósito, F. Rivera-López, and D. Taima

. Stauffer , 1995 : A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398+STR, 122 pp . Hamdi , R. , H. Van de Vyver , R. De Troch , and P. Termonia , 2014 : Assessment of three dynamical urban climate downscaling methods: Brussels’s future urban heat island under an A1B emission scenario. Int. J. Climatol., 34, 978–999 , doi: 10.1002/joc.3734 . Hong , S.-Y. , and J.-O. J. Lim , 2006 : The WRF single-moment 6-class microphysics

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Joel R. Norris and Conway B. Leovy

between anomaliesin MSC amount and latent heat flux parameter for JJA. (b) Sum oflatent and sensible heat flux anomalies (W m-2) linearly related to a1% change in MSC amount, as determined by ;~egression, for theNorth Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.Canary Islands regions (Fig. 10a) and in the Namibiaregion during MAM (not shown). The factors controlling cloudam0unt are clearly complex, but the linkbetween negative SST anomaly, positive warm advec- tion anomaly, and positive MSC anomaly that characterizes

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