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Christopher J. Anderson, Raymond W. Arritt, and John S. Kain

I: General kinematic structure. J. Atmos. Sci. , 44 , 987 – 1008 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<0987:DWHPCP>2.0.CO;2 Koren, V. , Schaake J. , Mitchell K. , Duan Q-Y. , Chen F. , and Baker J. M. , 1999 : A parameterization of snowpack and frozen ground intended for NCEP weather and climate models. J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , D16 . 19569 – 19585 . 10.1029/1999JD900232 Kreitzberg, C. , and Perkey D. , 1977 : Release of potential instability. Part II: The mechanism of

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Julian C. Brimelow and Gerhard W. Reuter

– 403 . 10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<0396:ROTIFL>2.0.CO;2 Poulos, G. S. , Wesley D. A. , Snook J. S. , and Meyers M. P. , 2002 : A Rocky Mountain storm. Part I: The blizzard—Kinematic evolution and the potential for high-resolution numerical forecasting of snowfall. Wea. Forecasting , 17 , 955 – 970 . 10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<0955:ARMSPI>2.0.CO;2 Proctor, B. A. , Wang M. , Strong G. S. , and Smith C. D. , 1999 : Atmospheric moisture budgets for MAGS. Proc. Fifth Scientific

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Jian Sun and Guido D. Salvucci

momentum is approximated as . In our model, we estimated vegetation height as a free constant parameter. Following Chen et al. (1997) we specify the relation between and as In Eq. (A8) , is the kinematic molecular viscosity ( m 2 s −1 ), Re is the roughness Reynolds number, is the surface friction velocity, approximated (without stability correction) as , and C is a free parameter. In the equation, is further modified based on the formulation of . For LE , we need to consider

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Guy Delrieu, John Nicol, Eddy Yates, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Jean-Dominique Creutin, Sandrine Anquetin, Charles Obled, Georges-Marie Saulnier, Véronique Ducrocq, Eric Gaume, Olivier Payrastre, Hervé Andrieu, Pierre-Alain Ayral, Christophe Bouvier, Luc Neppel, Marc Livet, Michel Lang, Jacques Parent du-Châtelet, Andrea Walpersdorf, and Wolfram Wobrock

simplicity, to evaluate the mean runoff coefficient on each subwatershed and its evolution during the rain event; and 4) the kinematic wave model is used to route the flood flows through the watershed. The evolution of the runoff coefficient value during the event is derived from the basic SCS equations: where Q t and P t are the accumulated runoff and rainfall amounts (expressed in millimeters), respectively, from the beginning of the event up to time t . The unique parameter of the model is

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Ulrich Strasser, Michael Warscher, and Glen E. Liston

the description of the mass loss rate, the Reynolds, Nusselt, and Sherwood numbers are required. The particle Reynolds number R e with 0.7 < R e < 10 is given by ( Lee 1975 ): with ν being the kinematic viscosity of air (1.3 × 10 −5 m 2 s −1 ). The Sherwood number S h is assumed to equal the Nusselt number N u , which is given by The saturation vapor pressure e s (Pa) over ice is estimated following Buck (1981) : This equation produces slightly larger saturation vapor pressure

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John Kochendorfer, Michael E. Earle, Daniel Hodyss, Audrey Reverdin, Yves-Alain Roulet, Rodica Nitu, Roy Rasmussen, Scott Landolt, Samuel Buisán, and Timo Laine

-s intervals. With the exception of the HSA, all gauges performed an internal intensity correction to compensate for kinematic effects (precipitation losses between successive tips of the collection mechanism) at higher intensities. The reference precipitation measurements were recorded using the double-fence automated reference (DFAR) configuration at each site. Each DFAR consisted of a weighing precipitation gauge (either an OTT Pluvio2, from OTT Hydromet, Kempten, Germany, or a 3-wire T-200B3

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Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Jiahu Wang, Humberto Vergara, and Emmanouil N. Anagnostou

runoff is kinematically routed downstream based on cell connectivity, slope, and flow direction derived from a digital elevation model. Two parameters describe the channel routing component. A power-law equation employing a coefficient and exponent is used to describe the relation between discharge and cross-sectional area. These parameters are found empirically using measurements of cross-sectional area and discharge at the USGS stream-gauging site circled in Fig. 1 . Forcing to HL-RDHM includes

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Ryan J. MacDonald, James M. Byrne, and Stefan W. Kienzle

air (2.25 × 10 −5 m 2 s −1 ). The Nusselt number N Nu and Sherwood number N sh are where the Reynolds number N re = (2 r Vr/ V ); Vr is the terminal ventilation velocity, where horizontal particle components are assumed equal to the horizontal wind speed ( Schmidt 1982 ; Déry and Taylor 1996 ), and V is the kinematic viscosity of air (1.53 × 10 −5 m 2 s −1 ; Déry and Yau 1999 ). 4) Snowmelt The snowmelt routine was adopted from Quick and Pipes (1977) . For snowmelt to

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Tomoko Nitta, Kei Yoshimura, and Ayako Abe-Ouchi

predictions of the temperature and amount of water in the canopy, soil, and snow. The freezing and melting of soil water are also considered. As shown in the gray box in the upper-left part of Fig. 2 , water inflow to the soil surface goes to infiltration or to surface runoff directly to rivers. The kinematic wave equation is used for river routing ( Ngo-Duc et al. 2007 ). Fig . 1. Land cover of the potential vegetation tiles used in this study: 1) continental ice, 2) broadleaf evergreen forest, 3

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Jeffrey P. Walker, Garry R. Willgoose, and Jetse D. Kalma

model of basin hydrology. Hydrol. Sci. Bull , 24 , 43 – 69 . 10.1080/02626667909491834 Boughton, W. C. , 1983 : A simple model for estimating the water yield of ungauged catchments. Civ. Eng. Trans , CE25 , 83 – 88 . Cabral, M. C. , Garrote L. , Bras R. L. , and Entekhabi D. , 1992 : A kinematic model of infiltration and runoff generation in layered and sloped soils. Adv. Water Resour , 15 , 311 – 324 . 10.1016/0309-1708(92)90017-V Capehart, W. J. , and Carlson T. N

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